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The Role of Security Assurances to Ukraine and the 1994 Budapest Memorandum: From the 1990s to the Crimea Crisis

Vladimir Orlov

Till 2014 the issue of nuclear weapons on Ukraine’s territory, and of security assurances to be given to Ukraine in return for becoming a non-nuclear weapon state, seemed to be resolved once and for all in the Trilateral Statement by the Russian, U.S. and Ukrainian presidents, and then in the Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances, both signed in 1994. However, the Crimean crisis made experts and decision makers raise the question whether the Budapest Protocol is still in force and what are the implications of potential answer for Ukraine; Crimea; and each of the three states that gave Ukraine the security assurances. The author of the article provided a retrospective analysis of the issue observing the Crimean crisis from half a year’s distance.


The Role of Security Assurances to Ukraine and the 1994 Budapest Memorandum: From the 1990s to the Crimea Crisis (full text)


Security Index: A Russian Journal on International Security, Volume 20, Issue 2, 2014