Heather A. Conley, Vladimir Orlov, Gen. Evgeny Buzhinsky, Cyrus Newlin, Sergey Semenov and Roksana Gabidullina
The Future of U.S.-Russian Arms Control: Principles of Engagement and New Approaches image

As one of its first security policy decisions, the Biden administration agreed to extend the New START Treaty for five years with no conditions.  The New START Treaty represents one of the last remaining vestiges of international arms control architecture and one of the few areas of potentially prod...

Natalia Romashkina, Dmitry Stefanovich, Alexey Markov

The monograph is devoted to topical issues of international security and strategic stability in the context of accelerated development of information and communication technologies. It justifies the importance of ensuring international information security. The monograph examines the possibility of ...

The Valdai Discussion Club

February 9, 2021.


Autonomous weapons are moving from engineering concept to army arsenals all around the world, and reports on their combat use are becoming more frequent. The first surprise about drones is that non-government military groups were the first to use them i...

Surviving in a Deregulated Strategic World image

Russian-American strategic relations are entering uncharted waters with the demise of the arms control regime; rapid technological revolution; the rise of nuclear multipolarity; the asymmetry of the two countries’ positions amid their growing confrontation and an increasing likelihood of military con...

Now when the U.S. presidential elections are over the fate of the START Treaty and nuclear arms control, in general, has become clearer.

The New START treaty is set to expire on February 5, 2021, and only a few months ago there was little doubt that it would be the end of it. The Trump administratio...

All articles


Franco Carli image
Affiliation : Embassy of Italy
Position : First Secretary
Biography :

Club Member since 2013. First secretary of Embassy of Italia in Moscow

Franzen, Patrick image
City : Moscow
Position : Deputy Head of Mission
Friedrich Andreas image
Biography :

Head of the Swiss delegations to the Nuclear Suppliers Group, the Australia Group and the Technology Control Regime; Member of the Swiss delegations to the NPT Review Conferences, to the IAEA General Conference and to the Conference on Disarmament.

Frolov, Andrei L. image
Affiliation : Editor-in-Chief of the "Export of Weapons" journal
Biography :

He served the internship from September, 2002 till January 2003, then he was the PIR Center Coordinator for the Project on Transformation of the Russian Exports Control System, Commissioning Editor of the Yaderny Kontrol journal, Research Associate. During the internship he wrote an article entitled “Russia and France in the Mirror of the Global Partnership” and published it in the Yaderny Kontrol journal, No.2, 2003. A graduate of the French-Russian Masters Program of the Moscow State Institute for International Relations (MGIMO) as of 2003. He graduated with honors from the International Relations Department of the St. Petersburg State University. A participant of the Second International Nonproliferation Conference held in Moscow. His scientific interests encompass nuclear submarines, advanced armaments for Russian and foreign armed forces, issues of military technology cooperation for the Russian Federation.

Gabuev, Alexander T. image
City : Moscow, Russia
Affiliation : Head, Russia in the Asia-Pacific Program, Carnegie Moscow Center
Biography :

MA in Chinese History. Graduated from Moscow State University (2009). MA in Stock Markets and Investments, Higher School of Economics (2013). Started his career at Kommersant daily newspaper in 2007 working as a senior diplomatic reporter, covered Russia’s relations with Asian powers and the connection between Russian business interests and foreign policy. Was a member of Dmitry Medvedev’s president press corps. Was deputy foreign editor at Kommersant and a member of the editorial board of the Kommersant publishing house2012-2014 – deputy editor in chief, Kommersant-Vlast magazine. Was a nonresident visiting research fellow at the European Council on Foreign Relations (ECFR), a lecturer on Chinese energy policy and political culture at the Moscow State University. PIR Center Advisory Board member since 2015.

Gaebel, Michael image
Biography :

Graduated from the Free University of Berlin. 2002-2006 – Director of an EC funded higher education cooperation programme, the ASEAN-EU University Network Programme. Since 2006 – Senior Project Manager of the European University Association.

Gagarinsky Andrey image
Affiliation : advisor to the Director of the Russian Research Center – the Kurchatov Institute, deputy director of the Institute of Innovative Energy
Biography :

Born in 1939. In 1962 he graduated the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI) and since then he has joined the Kurchatov Institute. Dr. Gagarinsky’s research interests include the physics of experimental nuclear reactors, critical security, pressurizedwater reactors, innovation technologies of nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear energy. He is one of the founders of the Soviet Nuclear Society and VicePresident of the Russian Nuclear Society. Dr. Gagarinsky is awarded with the Order of Courage for participation in the elimination of consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Member of the editorial boards of Atomnaya Energiya (Russia), Nukleonika (Poland), and International Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology.

City : Moscow region, Abramtsevo
Biography :

Gallyamova, Albina A. image
City : Moscow
Affiliation : PIR Center
Position : Intern, Information & Publications Program
Biography :

Finished the faculty of oriental studies at Lomonosov Moscow State University. Currently studies at the faculty of Financial Management at the Higher School of Economics. Did internships at LLK-International Lukoil in 2018, at the Ministry of Economic Development of Russia in 2019. Research interests: the influence of artificial intelligence on political processes. 03/21

Galuzin Mikhail image
Affiliation : Director of Third Asian Department in Russian MFA
Biography :

Served as an Advisor-Envoy at the Russian Embassy in Japan in 2001–2008.

Gankin Leonid E. image
Affiliation : Head of Foreign Affairs Section, Kommersant Daily (2006-2011)
Biography :

Leonid E. Gankin was born on December 7, 1955, Moscow. He graduated from the Institute of Asian and African Studies (Moscow State University). In 1981 he completed a postgraduate course at the same university. Leonid Gankin has PhD in Philology. He worked in the Soviet Culture Center in Kampala (Uganda), Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He is the author of over 40 publications on history, culture and languages of Africa. Since the mid-1990s he has worked as a journalist. In 1995 he started in the Moscow News. Between 1997 and 2011 he worked with the Kommersant Daily. 

Gaponenko Vadim image
City : Vladivostok, Russia
Affiliation : Vice-chancellor for Development and International Cooperation at Maritime State University named after adm. G.I. Nevelskoi
Biography :

Graduated from Naval Institute of Radio Electronics named after A.S. Popov. Served as the Director of Center for International Studies at Maritime State University. Member of Security Index journal Editorial Board, journal representative in Vladivostok.

Gardner, Don image
Biography :

Education: State University of New York at Buffalo, Master of Science, Nuclear Engineering, Bachelor of Science, Aerospace Engineering. As Project Manager for the Seversk Project Don Gardner manages the project for the US Department of Energy in Moscow, Russia.

Garibian Simon image
City : Georgia
Affiliation : North-Caucasus Research Center of the High School of the South Federal University (Rostov-upon-Don)
Gasimov, Kamal T. image
City : Baku, Azerbaijan
Affiliation : Center for Strategic Studies under the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, expert
Gavrilova, Vera A. image
Biography :

Graduate of the Humanitarian Faculty, Novosibirsk State University (NSU). Instructor of the International Relations and Regional Studies Department at Novosibirsk State Technical University since 2004. Lectured courses are: national and regional security, political science. In 2005 served the internship at Free University of Brussels (Belgium) and University of Kent at Canterbury (England). Research interests include: international security and national security.

GEERS Kenneth image
Affiliation : Cyber Subject Matter Expert of U.S. Naval Criminal Investigative Service
Geleskul, Elena S. image
Biography :

Postgraduate student at Tomsk State University. Graduated from Novosibirks State Technical University. Participant of the International Summer schools of Tomsk State University in 2006 and 2007. Graduate of the International Summer School for Global Security 2008 at the Center for Policy Studies (Russia). Research interests: regime of nuclear non-proliferation and international security.

Gennady Evstafiev image
Biography :

Lieutenant-General (ret.) Evstafiev (25.08.1938 – 19.02.2013), a person of great fortitude, wisdom, and professionalism, dedicated all his health, strength, and intellect to serving his country and strengthening international security. We are very honored to have been able to work with such an amazing and knowledgeable person.

One of the patriarchs of nuclear nonproliferation has left us. No matter what office he held, Gennady Mikhailovich made considerable contributions to strengthen the nonproliferation and disarmament regime.  From 1981 to 1985, he served as Special Assistant to the UN Secretary-General, and from 1999-2000 as a member of the Secretary-General’s Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters. He was an active participant in the historical 1995 NPT Review and Extension Conference, as well as the Moscow Nuclear Safety and Security Summit in 1996.

Gennady Mikhailovich played a key role in preparing the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service’s public reports “A New Challenge After the Cold War: Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction” (1993) and “The Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons: Problems of Extension” (1995), which are still used today as key reference materials in the field. To this day, the publication of these reports remains an example of special services’ analytic work and ability to engage the public in dialogue. Thanks to the work of these authors, the world saw that Russia bases its arguments on facts and, no matter the circumstances, independently participates in the formation of a global nonproliferation and disarmament agenda.

Lieutenant-General Evstafiev was one of the people who, during the country’s hardest times, not only stayed dedicated to the task at hand, but was also able find solutions to global problems in a spirit of collaboration and while protecting national interests. From 1986 to 1991, Gennady Mikhailovich was one of the head Soviet delegates during the negotiation of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE Treaty) in Vienna before he went on to work for the Foreign Intelligence Service. From 2000-2003, he served at the Russian Permanent Mission to NATO, where he worked on combating terrorism and WMD proliferation. After retiring in 2003, he became a Senior Advisor and later Senior Vice President at the PIR Center, where he continued to dedicate himself to arms control issues and developing new security mechanisms in Europe.

For Gennady Mikhailovich, strengthening the nonproliferation and disarmament regime wasn’t just political rhetoric, it was a subject of in-depth analysis with the goal of finding optimal, balanced solutions. Back when people had essentially stopped thinking about saving the world from weapons of mass destruction, before big speeches and initiatives revived the topic, Gennady Mikhailovich published the article “Disarmament Returns” (Security Index 2007), in which he not only declared the acute relevance of this problem, he defined the lines along which this discussion takes place today. “The main mistake that people make is they fear today’s troubles more than tomorrow’s,” he said, and underlined that, “this means only one thing – we must learn to preempt the consequences of new military technology and classes of weapons with timely political and legal measures.”

This is precisely what Gennady Mikhailovich worked on at the PIR Center. He co-authored a 2005 monograph Unmanned aerial vehicles: history, application, threat of proliferation, and prospects of development – the first work to define the importance of this issue for Russia. Information security, nuclear energy and nonproliferation, Central Asia – Evstafiev was a part of these and many other PIR projects from the outset. Dozens of publications, hundreds of interviews and comments to the press – he was constantly working.

He will most certainly be remembered, today and forever more, by dozens of students – young diplomats, officers, and scholars, those for whom he was a mentor at work or during an internship, those who listened to his every word at Summer School and other training courses.

What did young scholars expect, and then receive, from their senior colleague? During conversations he would say such things like, “Be sure to pay attention to this question… It may be worth taking a closer look here… You should read this book here…” and then a new idea would form, and we would begin to see a pointed problem in its greater historical and political context, and the student would morph into a specialist in front of our eyes. A graduate of the Oriental Studies Department at Leningrad State University, Gennady Mikhailovich completed the colossal school of life and carried with him the best traditions of analysis and the deep understanding of regional and global processes. Along the way, he passed on these traditions and mental discipline to his students, for which we will be ever grateful.

Gennady Mikhailovich played a significant role at the PIR Center. He was with PIR even before its founding and stayed the course through our development. Over the course of almost 10 years, he served as a Senior Advisor and Senior Vice President of the PIR Center. With his direct participation, PIR expanded the scope of its work, transitioned from Yaderny Kontrol to Security Index, developed a new education and training program, and attracted new partners and friends. Each of us will treasure our memories of interacting with this extraordinary person, colleague, and mentor.

Photo gallery 



Segments from the program “What is to be done? New nuclear states,” Kultura TV channel with Gennady Evstafiev’s participation, October 29, 2006 (in Russian).


Gerasim, Mikhail G. image
Biography :

An engineer at the Reactor plant, Siberian Chemical Combine (SKhK) at Seversk, Tomsk Region. A graduate of the Physics and Technology Department of the Tomsk Polytechnical University. He trained at the PIR Center from June 3 till September 30, 2002. His sphere of scientific interest covers the problems of the handling of spent nuclear fuel, issues on the prohibition of the manufacture of fissile materials and production of the weapons grade plutonium, the HEU-LEU bilateral agreement, and the upgrading of safety and security of the nuclear power plants. He participated in the Program of Career Development for Young Specialists, arranged by the PIR Center in November 2003.

Gernemann Lea image
City : Moscow
Affiliation : Higher School of Economics
Position : Graduate student
Biography :

Graduate student of the International Masters in Economy, State & Society, a joint program of University College London and the Higher School of Economics in Moscow, with a specialization in Politics and Security. Graduated from the University of Bonn, Germany, with a B. A. in English and Politics, and spent a year studying international relations at Mount Holyoke College, MA. Participated in business and journalism courses in Belarus and Ukraine. Intern at the PIR Center from January until March 2016. Research interests include demographics and health in security studies, energy security and regional stability in the post-Soviet space, particularly in Central Asia. 

Giacca Gilles image
Affiliation : The International Committee of the Red Cross – ICRC
Position : Legal Adviser
Biography :

PhD in International Law and Legal Studies, The Graduate Institute of International Development Studies of Geneva (2012), holds a Master’s degree in Public International Law from the University of Essex (2006). Legal Advisor in the ICRC's Legal Division since September 2014, Research Associate at the Oxford Institute for Ethics Law and Armed Conflict since January 2013. Received the “International Geneva Award” from the Swiss Network for International Studies (2011) and “The Francis Lieber Prize” from the American Society of International Law (2015). Research fields: the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), arms availability / small arms; new technologies of warfare, including remote-controlled, autonomous weapons and cyber warfare and security; CCW process on autonomous weapons, as well as weapons reviews & Article 36 API. Speaks Italian, English, French, and German.

Golikov Alexander image
Affiliation : Executive Secretary of the Black Sea Biotechnological Association
Biography :

He is a biochemist who worked for many years in the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry in Moscow. He then was Deputy Director of the «AnalitEK – analytics in ecology» and Deputy Director of the Bioengineering Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In 1997–2001 he was an Academic Secretary of the InterAgency Governmental Commission for Genetic Engineering. In 1996–2000 he was a board member and rapporteur of the UN task force elaborating the Cartagena Protocol and UNEP expert on biological safety and security.

Golovin Alexander image
City : Bern
Affiliation : Ambassador, Russian Embassy in Switzeralnd
Biography :

He was born in 1949. In 1971 graduated from the Moscow State Institute of International Relations,  in 1981 grdauated from Diplomatic Academy. Doctor of Law. In the diplomatic service  since 1971. Has extensive experience working in the central office of the Ministry and abroad. He worked at the Soviet Embassy and the Russian Federation in the Federal Republic of Germany (1972-1975, 1991-1996.), East Germany (1979-1986 gg.). In 1996-2000 Director of the Fourth European Department of the Russian Foreign Ministry (from 1999 - a member of the Board of Foreign Affairs). From 2000 to 2004 was Russian Ambassador to Austria.Right now he is Ambassador of Russia to Switzerland, since year 2012.


Biography :

In 2010-2011 - intern at the Chinese NPP Projects Department of Atomstroyexport, a leading Russian nuclear engineering company. Graduated from the National Nuclear Research University MEPHI in 2011. He has taken part in several nuclear conferences and authored six research papers. Winner of the Rosatom Stipend awarded to promising young nuclear scientists.

City : Moscow, Russia
Affiliation : Centre of the Russian strategy in Asia
Position : Adviser to the National Committee for the exploration of the BRICS.
Biography :

Adviser to the National Committee on BRICS Research. Scientific Secretary and Junior Research Fellow of the Asian Strategy Center, PhD student of the Institute of Economics of the RAS. A graduate of the Moscow State Institute of international relations of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Russian Federation (2014), Saint Petersburg State University (2012). Participant of the VIII BRICS Academic Forum (2016), (I) and (II) youth forums BRICs and SCO (2015-2016). Research interests: global governance, international relations, world economy, BRICS countries. Speaks English and German.

Gordeev Nikita image
City : Saratov
Affiliation : Saratov State Law Academy
Position : Postgraduate student
Gore, Albert image
Affiliation : American politician and philanthropist
Biography :

Albert “Al” Gore is an American politician and philanthropist. He is a former Vice President of the United States (1993-2001), and he ran for president twice (1988, 2000). From 1977-1985, he was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from the state of Tennessee, and in 1984 he was elected as a U.S. Senator from Tennessee, where he was reelected in 1990. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007.

From the time he graduated Harvard University in 1969 to 1971, Gore served in the Army as a journalist. After he returned to the States, he worked as a reporter and then a columnist for the newspaper The Tennessean. While in the Senate, he sat on the Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, the Rules and Administration, the Energy and Commerce, the Science and Technology, and the Armed Services Committees. In 1992, he became the Vice President of the United States after a successful presidential campaign with Bill Clinton; they were reelected in 1996. In 1993, Gore and Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin signed the Russian-American intergovernmental agreement on the conversion of highly-enriched uranium, better known as the “Megatons to Megawatts” agreement.

In 2001, Gore became the Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors for the Los Angeles-based financial services holding company Metropolitan West Financial. He was also the president of the American tv channel “Current,” a board member at Apple Computer, and a senior advisor to Google. Gore is well known as an environmental activist and is the author of multiple books.

Gottemoeller, Rose image
City : США
Affiliation : Distinguished Visiting Scholar at the CNS; Payne Distinguished Lecturer at the CISAC; Research Fellow at the Hoover Institution
Biography :

Rose Gottemoeller was sworn in as the Assistant Secretary of State for the Bureau of Arms Control, Verification and Compliance, on April 6, 2009. She was the chief negotiator of the New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (New START) with the Russian Federation. Since 2000, she had been with the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. She most recently was a senior associate in the Carnegie Russia & Eurasia Program in Washington, D.C., where she worked on U.S.–Russian relations and nuclear security and stability. She also served as the director of the Carnegie Moscow Center from January 2006 – December 2008. Before joining the Endowment in October 2000, Ms. Gottemoeller was deputy undersecretary for defense nuclear nonproliferation in the U.S. Department of Energy. Previously, she served as the department's assistant secretary for nonproliferation and national security, with responsibility for all nonproliferation cooperation with Russia and the Newly Independent States. In 1994-1997, deputy director of the International Institute for Strategic Studies (London, United Kingdom). In 1993-1994, director for Russia, Ukraine, and Eurasia Affairs of the U.S. National Security Council. Research interests: nuclear nonproliferation and strategic security. PIR Center Advisory Board member since 1994.

Gozal, Albert image
Biography :

Education: an engineer’s degree in Chemical Engineering, an engineer’s degree in Nuclear Engineering and a doctorate in Chemical Engineering. At the moment holds a position of the 1st Counsellor in European Union Joint Action on Disarmament and Nonproliferation, Delegation of the European Commission to Russia.

Graeme P. Herd image
Affiliation : Senior Programme Advisor and Senior Fellow, Leadership in Conflict Management Programme at the GCSP, Co-Director of its International Training Course in Security Policy, and Co-Director of its Master of Advanced Studies in International and European Security (MAS) Programme, accredited by the University of Geneva
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