The USSR launches the Earth’s first artificial satellite (Sputnik).



PIR Center launches a contest for participation in the final seminar of the educational project Oral History of Nuclear Nonproliferation. The aim of the project is to preserve and transmit the memory of the role of Russian diplomats and the military in shaping the modern architecture of arms control, disarmament and nuclear nonproliferation. This project has no analogues in Russia and is intended to expand the understanding of the younger generation about the processes and events in such a traditionally non-public area as nuclear policy and diplomacy of Russia. The project will allow young international specialists to improve their skills in these issues, as well as share the results of their own research on topical issues of the nuclear nonproliferation regime.


Today, PIR Center celebrates the 95th anniversary of an outstanding Soviet diplomat, scientist, one of the main mentors of the PIR Center for more than 20 years – Amb. Roland Timerbaev. He was one of the world's largest experts in the field of nuclear nonproliferation, a diplomat who made a tremendous contribution to the preparation of the 1968 Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), a key document of the global security system. 


We continue to publish materials on the X NPT Review Conference under the rubric "Notes from the Field: 10th NPT Review Conference through the Eyes of Russian Public Diplomacy". This time, PIR Center Deputy Director Elena Karnaukhova talked to Ambassador Sergio Duarte, the UN High Representative for Disarmament Affairs (2007-2012), the Brazilian representative to several International organizations, focusing on disarmament issues, the Chairman of the Board of Governors of the IAEA (1999-2000). He served the Brazilian Foreign Service for 48 years: the Ambassador of Brazil in a number of countries, including Austria, Croatia, Slovakia and Slovenia concurrently (1999-2002), China (1996-1999), Canada (1993-1996), and Nicaragua (1986-1991), Switzerland (1979-1986), the United States (1970-1974), Argentina (1963-1966), and Rome (1961-1963). Sergio Duarte stood at the origins of the NPT and was familiar with Roland Timerbaev.


PIR Center publishes the thesis of H.E. Sergey A. Ryabkov, Deputy Foreign Minister of the Russian Federation, for the International Scientific Conference “On the 60th Anniversary of the Cuban Missile Crisis”.

Evgeny Maslin reflections on the PIR Center monograph “Russia-U.S. Nuclear Nonproliferation Dialogue: Lessons Learned and Road Ahead”

U.S.-Russian relations in their current form infuse me with little optimism. Even where the common interest is evident – in the nuclear nonproliferation domain, in the cause of preventing a nuclear conflict, divergencies in stances are unprecedentedly wide, there being little or no normal respectful engagement. That is not who it should be! Our countries can and should cooperate – and the rest of the world expects such partnership from us.

That is why the new PIR Center monograph Russia-U.S. Dialogue on Nuclear Nonproliferation: Lessons Learned and Road Ahead is as relevant as never before. Its leitmotiv, the key lesson learned is that our nations` interests diverge in many areas, but that does not justify renouncing cooperation on everything.

For me as a practitioner rather than an armchair scholar, the importance of cooperation between our countries is no mere word and no abstraction. In the 1990s and later the 12th Main Directorate of the Ministry of Defense that I led in 1992-1997, was directly involved in the Cooperative Threat Reduction program. As a result of that program, we managed to concentrate all Soviet nuclear warheads on the Russian soil.  À propos, it is 25 years since the last nuclear warheads were withdrawn from Ukraine following three years of intensive talks. The security and safety of transporting nuclear warheads by car and by rail had greatly increased. Emergency response system for addressing possible accidents with nuclear weapons has been established, emergency teams had been provided with modern equipment. In the 2000s nuclear arsenals were instrumented with nuclear security systems.

That was only one of many directions of CTR program: active work was carried out by Minatom to eliminate decommissioned nuclear submarines. This activity was aimed at precluding fissile material smuggling, mitigating possible proliferation risks and was in line with both Russian and U.S. interests.

I am confident that there are enough spheres where Russian and U.S. interests overlap even now.

New PIR Center`s book is addressed to those Russian and American specialists, diplomats, military men, scholars, who like their predecessors in Cold War times, defended the national interests through dialogue rather than confrontation. And I am sure that a thoughtful, unbiased reader will find good food for thought in this book.

In my view, it is particularly important that there are many young people, junior specialists among the authors. If the youth on both shores of Bering Strait puts their thoughts into how to rectify the Russian-U.S. relations, I am optimistic.


Evgeny Maslin,

Colonel General (retired),
Head, 12th Main Directorate of
the Ministry of Defense (1992-1997);
Member of PIR Center Executive Board