Treaty of Pelindaba establishing a zone free of nuclear weapons in Africa entered into force
The first test of a Soviet hydrogen bomb, named RDS-6s, with a yield of 400 kilotons.



“In June, the US National Security Council was due to consider a draft decision on the revision of some elements of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). In particular, Washington wants to remove heavy attack and reconnaissance drones from the MTCR control list, which will allow American companies to supply them to “unstable” countries as well. The military-industrial complex is lobbying removal of some restrictions from the USA the most actively, and although no final decision on this issue has been reported, the consequences of such a step can be significant: the entire regime of international export control may be jeopardized” - this is the leitmotiv of the 524th issue of Yaderny Kontrol.


The article analyzes NATO nuclear sharing arrangements and examines the history of the concept of nuclear sharing, based on archival documents, and its practical implementation at the present stage. The authors pay special attention to the positions of the countries in whose territory American tactical nuclear weapons are stored, as well as to the speeches of countries against nuclear sharing at the PrepComs of the Review Conference. In conclusion, recommendations for Russia in working on this issue are voiced.


“Training in the morning frees rest of the day - this is our general rule,” – Irina Mironova, senior specialist at Gazprom, senior lecturer of international programs at European University at St. Petersburg, and Dmitry Kovchegin, independent consultant.

Security in Cyber Space

Security in Cyber Space

(2 credits)

The course program developed by

Dr. Elena V. Chernenko, Deputy Head, Foreign Policy Desk, Kommersant, member of the PIR Center’s Executive Board

Mr. Mikhail V. Yakushev, Executive Vice-President for Cooperation with Public Authorities, JSC "VimpelCom", Member of the PIR Center’s Advisory Board.

1.1    The place and role of the course in the program of study:

Information and telecommunication technologies (ICT) have become one of the most ubiquitous, fundamental, and genuinely global technologies that define the dynamics of the development of the global economy and international security.

Technologically advanced countries have developed a comprehensive financial and infrastructural capability and expertise to use ICT for military-political purposes. In view of the evolution of malicious software; growing threats to critical infrastructure; increasing dependence of all the key sectors or the global and national economy, governance, and security on ICT it is safe to say that in the developed countries, the potential to achieve the goals of the conflict using ICT is approaching the potential of kinetic weapons and even WMD.

WMD nonproliferation, prospects of arms control and nuclear safety and security themselves are influenced by development of ICT technologies and opportunities for military use of cyber space.

The course “Security Issues in Cyber Space” aims at providing knowledge on influence of ICT and strategic use of cyber space on global security and strategic stability, arms control, disarmament and nuclear security.

The course will provide knowledge on ICT and cyber space, which is important for future experts in WMD nonproliferation. The course reveals and considers new aspects of international and political context of disarmament, arms control, nonproliferation and nuclear security.

The course will examine such dimensions of the interrelation between cyber security issues and nonproliferation as:

- Implications of the ICT developments for nonproliferation, disarmament, arms control and nuclear security;
- ICT and cyber space impact on future of deterrence, strategic stability, strategic relations and global security;
- Possibilities and limitations for use of nonproliferation and arms control experience for development of international regulation of cyber space and its use in military purposes;
- Cyber security of nuclear and other critical infrastructure.

1.2 The course goals and objectives:

The main goal of the course is to provide students with basic knowledge on the elements of ICT and cyber space development, which have an impact on global security. Among the practical tasks is to raise awareness among students of the importance of information and computer security as a fundamental part of the overall security of nuclear facilities.

Course objectives:

- To introduce basic definitions, concepts, history current state and infrastructure of ICT and military use of cyber space in the context of global security and impact of ICT on future of strategic relations and nuclear security.
- To orient students to understand the relationship between use of cyber space and nonproliferation aspects of global security.
- To provide students with methodology of analysis of the cyber risks to nuclear security and global security, arising from use of cyber technologies and use of cyber space.  

1.3  Learning outcomes:

Classes are generally held to provide knowledge and methodology for further analysis and discussion on the matter of the course.

Teaching methods used include lectures, consultations, seminars, debate, discussions and students’ seminar presentations.

By the end of this course students should be able to:

1. Understand interrelations between development of cyber technologies and strategic and nuclear sphere.
2. Analyze keys vulnerabilities and risks of nuclear security, arms control and disarmament process, connected with growing access to cyber technologies.
3. Correlate advantages and risks of use of cyber technologies for nuclear sphere.
4. Analyze and compare international bilateral and multilateral initiatives and programs on peaceful and military use of ICT.
5. Assess the efficiencies and deficiencies of the existing political and legal frameworks on ICT regulation and nuclear security.
6. Search information and literature on cyber and nuclear issues, distinguish between authoritative and unreliable sources on these issues.

1.4 Course requirements:

Students will be required to attend not less than 90% of classes and to be prepared for class discussions. Conscientious reading of the assigned materials is compulsory. Students will also be required to participate in seminar discussions and to present written test.

1.5  Grading plan:

Average assessment will consist of three parts. First part is derived from students’ class active class participation and participation in seminar discussions. Second part consists of preparation of presentation by students. Third part is a grade for written test. If the student receives ≥ 70 average points, he/she passes the final test automatically. If the average points are < 70, the student passes the final test orally. In that case final assessment is < 70 points.

To get «А» (“excellent”) student should get 90-100 points



Class participation and seminar activity (participation in discussion, questions, comments)




Final Test




Course outline & Literature (available in pdf)

Slides in pdf:

Lecture 1. Introduction to the course. Political implications of Internet technologies, Internet Governance and regulation of Cyberspace

Lecture 2. Current status of legal regulation of the use of the Internet:problems of global online identification

Lecture 3. Security issues in cyberspace. The quest for rules of the road

Seminar Presentations:

Russian cyber capabilities

Chinese cyber capabilities

Snowden files

DarkNet from the angle of international security

Is Deterrence Possible in Cyber Space?