China and Russia issued a joint statement that the creation of a global missile defense system does not contribute to maintaining strategic balance and stability
Tenex and the China Atomic Energy Corporation signed a contract for the construction of phase IV of the uranium enrichment in Hanzhong
The Republic of Belarus, the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Russian Federation, Ukraine, and the USA sign a protocol to the treaty between the USA and the USSR on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms, also known as the Lisbon Protocol

International Security Index iSi




On May 2, more than 40 friends and partners of the PIR Center gathered at the Permanent Mission of Russia to the UN. Among them were heads and high representatives of delegations participating in the third session of the Preparatory Committee of the NPT Review Conference, the world's largest experts in the field of non-proliferation, graduates of PIR Center programs working in New York, young scientists and master students of double degree in the field of non-proliferation.


"Can it really be true that PIR Center is a quarter of a century old today? It would be a great occasion for a grand celebration, wouldn’t it. But I still cannot quite believe it.

When me and a tiny team of my associates were establishing PIR Center in the spring of 1994, working in a small room on the corner of Tverskaya Ulitsa and Strastny Boulevard overlooking the Pushkin statue in the very heart of Moscow, I could hardly imagine that this great institution would live long enough to see the new century and indeed the new millennium. If someone told me back at the time that it would mark its 25th anniversary in Moscow, Geneva and New York, or that greetings would be pouring in from all over the world to what is now a highly reputable international nongovernmental organization, I probably wouldn’t believe them. After all, how many fly-by-night NGOs have we all seen over the years – here today, gone tomorrow?," Vladimir Orlov, PIR Center Founder.


"Today a member of the PIR Center Executive Board, a member of the IMEMO (Institute of World Economy and International Relations) Directorate, Army General, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Hero of Russia Vyacheslav Trubnikov celebrates his 75th birthday. Vyacheslav Ivanovich, having reached the greatest heights of public service, you remained open to new ideas, plans and actions. We are happy to work with you for almost ten years! You are a source of soft, but mighty and attracting power, which is especially important in relations with the new generation of specialists – those who will construct a new world. Many well-known and beginning diplomats and military men, scientists and journalists throughout Eurasia are grateful for your inspiration and support, for your wise and precise judgement. We wish you good health, optimism and high spirits! We look forward to new meetings with you! Keep it up!" – PIR Center Director Albert Zulkharneev. 

Security in Cyber Space

Security in Cyber Space

(2 credits)

The course program developed by Mr. Oleg Demidov, the PIR Center’s Consultant and Member of the PIR Center’s Advisory Board.

The course instructor: Mr. Oleg Demidov.


1.1     The place and role of the course in the program of study:


Information and telecommunication technologies (ICT) have become one of the most ubiquitous, fundamental, and genuinely global technologies that define the dynamics of the development of the global economy and international security.


Technologically advanced countries have developed a comprehensive financial and infrastructural capability and expertise to use ICT for military-political purposes. In view of the evolution of malicious software; growing threats to critical infrastructure; increasing dependence of all the key sectors or the global and national economy, governance, and security on ICT it is safe to say that in the developed countries, the potential to achieve the goals of the conflict using ICT is approaching the potential of kinetic weapons and even WMD.


WMD nonproliferation, prospects of arms control and nuclear safety and security themselves are influenced by development of ICT technologies and opportunities for military use of cyber space.


The course “Security Issues in Cyber Space” aims at providing knowledge on influence of ICT and strategic use of cyber space on global security and strategic stability, arms control, disarmament and nuclear security.


The course will provide knowledge on ICT and cyber space, which is important for future experts on WMD nonproliferation. The course reveals and considers new aspects of international and political context of disarmament, arms control, nonproliferation and nuclear security.


The course will examine such dimensions of the interrelation between cyber security issues and nonproliferation as:


  • Implications of the ICT developments for nonproliferation, disarmament, arms control and nuclear security;
  • ICT and cyber space impact on future of deterrence, strategic stability, strategic relations and global security;
  • Possibilities and limitations for use of nonproliferation and arms control experience for development of international regulation of cyber space and its use in military purposes;
  • Cyber security of nuclear and other critical infrastructure.


The course goals and objectives:


The main goal of the course is to provide students with basic knowledge on the elements of ICT and cyber space development, which have an impact on global security, prospects of arms control and disarmament, create new opportunities and risks for nonproliferation and nuclear security. Among the practical tasks is to raise awareness among students of the importance of information and computer security as a fundamental part of the overall security of nuclear facilities.


Course objectives:

  1. To introduce basic definitions, concepts, history current state and infrastructure of ICT and military use of cyber space in the context of global security and impact of ICT on future of strategic relations and nuclear security.
  2. To orient students to understand the relationship between use of cyber space and nonproliferation aspects of global security.
  3. To provide students with methodology of analysis of the cyber risks to nuclear security and global security, arising from use of cyber technologies and use of cyber space.  


1.2     Learning outcomes:

Classes are generally held to provide knowledge and methodology for further analysis and discussion on the matter of the course.

Teaching methods used include lectures, consultations, seminars, debate, discussions and students’ seminar presentations.

By the end of this course students should be able to:

  1. Understand interrelations between development of cyber technologies and strategic and nuclear sphere.
  2. Analyze keys vulnerabilities and risks of nuclear security, arms control and disarmament process, connected with growing access to cyber technologies.
  3. Correlate advantages and risks of use of cyber technologies for nuclear sphere.
  4. Analyze and compare international bilateral and multilateral initiatives and programs on peaceful and military use of ICT.
  5. Assess the efficiencies and deficiencies of the existing political and legal frameworks on ICT regulation and nuclear security.
  6. Search information and literature on cyber and nuclear issues, distinguish between authoritative and unreliable sources on these issues.


Course requirements:

Students will be required to attend not less than 90% of classes and to be prepared for class discussions. Conscientious reading of the assigned materials is compulsory. Students will also be required to participate in seminar discussions and to present written test.

Presentations (requirements):

1.3     Grading plan:

Average assessment will consist of three parts. First part is derived from students’ class active class participation and participation in seminar discussions. Second part consists of preparation of presentation by students. If the student receives ≥ 70% average points, he/she passes the final test automatically. If the average points are <70%, the student passes the final test.




Class participation and seminar activity (participation in discussion, questions, comments)




Final Test




Course outline & Literature (available in pdf)

Slides in pdf:

Lecture 1. November 30, 2018. Cyberspace and ICTs: Understanding the New Domain.

Lecture 2. November 30, 2018. Cyberspace in Global Security Context: International Cooperation and Cyber Governance.

Lecture 3-4. December 14, 2018. Cyber security of critical infrastructures (CIs): concept and classification on CIs. Case studies of cyber incidents at CI objects: nuclear energy sector and other sectors.