International Security Index iSi

PIR PRESS LOGO

PIR PRESS NEWS

11.10.2018

“We have only two arms control treaties left, and I hope that the New START will be extended. What would an arms control regime look like after the New START expires? It is necessary to impose limitations upon the missile defense system because, following the American logic during the 60s, ABM turns to be a weapon of a potential aggressor. It is useless and impossible to include everything in one treaty, but the restrictions on offensive and defensive arms, including space-based ones will have to be the key elements of a future arms control architecture,” – Gen. Evgeny Buzhinskiy, Chairman of the PIR Center Executive Board.

04.10.2018

“He travelled, he studied, he taught.” It is in this order, as Nabokov wrote, that I would love to set priorities in my life. I have been to 70 countries. Is that many or few? Very, very few! By telling the story of the Russian Hawaii, I am getting ready for new travels. I cannot help but feel passion for changing places,” – Vladimir Orlov, Founder of PIR Center.

18.09.2018

“More education and training opportunities should be established to empower women and young people to be a force for change and disarmament and there must be better engagement and integration of experts, industry and civil society representatives into United Nations efforts for disarmament,” — Report of the UN Secretary-General on the work of the Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters.

Modern Arms Control and Disarmament

Modern Arms Control and Disarmament

(2 credits)

The course program developed by Gen. Evgeny Buzhinskiy, Chairman of the PIR Center’s Executive Board.

 

The course instructors: Gen. Evgeny Buzhinskiy; Dr. Alexander I. Nikitin; Dr. Alexander Saveliev; Dr. Vladimir I. Ermakov; Dr. Andrey Y. Malov; Ms. A. Kockurova. 

1.1      The place and role of the course in the program of study:

 

The course Modern Arms Control and Disarmament aims at providing knowledge on the key aspects of modern arms control and prospects of international legal regulation of military uses of outer space and missile technologies. It also highlights these issues in the context of nonproliferation, implementation of the Article VI of the NPT, regional and global security. 

Huge stockpiles of nuclear weapons were accumulated on our planet from 1945. It is believed that the combined size of the nuclear arsenals peaked in the mid-1980s at about 62,000 warheads. The United States and the Soviet Union (succeeded by Russia) held 98 per cent of the world's nuclear weapons stockpiles; that proportion remains more or less unchanged to this day. The three other official nuclear-weapon states, i.e. China, France and Britain, hold several hundred warheads between them.

Paradoxically, the proliferation of nuclear arsenals was going in parallel with the strengthening of the nuclear disarmament agenda. The first treaty signed in an attempt to regulate the development of nuclear weapons was the 1963 Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, which banned the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, in outer space, and under water. In 1968 numerous countries signed the multilateral Nuclear Weapons Non-Proliferation Treaty, which went on to become the most universal treaty in the entire history of world diplomacy. Article VI of the NPT now serves as the legal underpinning of progress towards a world free of nuclear weapons.

A few years later came the era of bilateral Soviet / Russian-American disarmament dialogue. For almost half a century all the efforts in the area of practical arms control, reduction and elimination of nuclear weapons were being undertaken mainly by the two largest nuclear powers, the Soviet Union (succeeded by Russia) and the United States. As a result of these joint efforts, the size of the global nuclear weapons stockpiles has shrunk by more than two-thirds since the mid-1980s. Meanwhile, other countries which possess nuclear weapons have either implemented much smaller reductions or even slightly increased the size of their arsenals. The need for multilateral (rather than bilateral) nuclear arms reduction measures is therefore becoming increasingly obvious. The signing of the 2010 New START Treaty by Russia and the United States has given a new impetus to the cause of nuclear disarmament.

At the same time arms control and disarmament agenda faces new challenges. These challenges grow up from development of new military technologies, change of world political order and new regional security crises, stagnation of multilateral negotiation and dialogue forums.

The course considers both historical and new elements of arms control, traditional and new factors, which influence prospects of disarmament, institutional and legal basis of arms control.

Bilateral and multilateral nuclear arms control and nuclear reductions will be considered within broader picture of new military technologies development, regional and global security issues.

The situation with missile defense is a perfect illustration of the effects of the factors which influence strategic stability and nuclear disarmament. So far Moscow and Washington have failed to agree on missile defense cooperation; this constitutes the main obstacle on the way towards deeper reductions of the two countries’ nuclear arsenals. The placement of weapons in space poses a substantial threat to strategic stability and global international security.  The growing number of countries expresses their interest to missile and space technologies. At the same time the international legal regulation of military use of space is still not well developed. There are new risks to missile technology control regime.

 

 

 

 

The course goals and objectives:

 

The main goal of the course is to provide students with basic knowledge of the current state and prospects of arms control as well as for the key factors, which influence disarmament process, risks and threats to future of disarmament negotiations, and risks and threats to global and regional security, connected with development of missile and military space technologies, national and international efforts to reduce these risks and develop legal and political framework for cooperation on arms control, disarmament and proliferation of missile technologies. 

 

Course objectives:

  1. To introduce basic definitions, concepts, history, current state, legal framework and institutional structure of nuclear arms control, nuclear reductions and disarmament, missile defence, military use of outer space and missile technology control.
  2. To orient students to understand the relationships between conventional and nuclear arms control, nonproliferation, offensive and defensive arms, space security, missile technologies control and regional and global security,
  3. To provide students with methodology of analysis of the arms control negotiations and documents, arms control issues within the broader regional and global security complex.

1.2      Learning outcomes:

Classes are generally held to provide knowledge and methodology for further analysis and discussion on the matter of the course.

Teaching methods used include lectures, consultations, discussions at the lectures and seminar.

By the end of this course students should be able to:

  1. Understand interrelations between nuclear arms control, conventional arms control, nonproliferation and disarmament, development of space and missile technologies and global security and development.
  2. Analyze keys vulnerabilities and risks of arms control and disarmament process, military use of outer space, missile control regime and current arms control.
  3. Analyze and compare national, international bilateral and multilateral initiatives and programs in the above mentioned spheres.
  4. Realize activities of national authorities and international organization on on the spheres of the course. 
  5. Assess the efficiencies and deficiencies of the existing political and legal frameworks of international efforts on the topics of the course.  
  6. Search information literature on nuclear arms control, disarmament issues, and new arms control issues, distinguish between authoritative and unreliable sources on these issues.

 

Course requirements:

Students will be required to attend not less than 90% of classes and to be prepared for class discussions. Conscientious reading of the assigned materials is compulsory. Students will also be required to participate in discussions at lectures and seminars and to present written test.

1.3      Grading plan:

  • Class participation and activity – 20 %.
  • Test – 80 %.

To get «А» (“excellent”) student should get 90 points, to get “pass”60 points.

 

 

Max

Class active participation (14 classes*2 points)

28

Final Test (30 questions*3 points and two open questions*5 points)

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Course Outline

 

 

 

 

Topic 1. Introduction to Modern Arms Control and Disarmament Issues.

 

November 6

14.15-15.45

Lecture 1.1. Introduction to modern arms control and disarmament problems. Definition of disarmament and arms control. Arms control in the context of nonproliferation, disarmament, strategic stability and global security. Conventional and strategic weapons.

Q&A on current arms control and European security issues.

 

Gen. Buzhinskiy

November 6

15.55-17.25

Lecture 1.2. The Origins of Strategic Stability Theory

Dr. Savelyev

 

Topic 5. Chemical and Biological Weapons

 

November 13 14.15-15.45

Lecture 5.1. Chemical Weapons and Chemical Weapons Convention

Ms. Kochkurova

November 13

15.55-17.25

Seminar 5.2. Chemical Weapons and Chemical Weapons Convention Lecture

Ms. Kochkurova

 

Topic 2. Current state and prospects of bilateral arms control and nuclear reductions

 

November 20

14.15-15.45

Lecture 2.1. Arms Control Decision-Making in the USSR.

Dr. Savelyev

November 20

15.55-17.25

Seminar 2.2. Arms Control Decision-Making in the USSR.

Dr. Savelyev

November 27

14.15-15.45

 

Lecture 2.3.  History of nuclear arms control and nuclear reductions.

Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties (SALT I and SALT II);

Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF Treaty)

Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties (START-1 and START-2)

Treaty on Strategic Offensive Reductions (SORT 2002)

Gen. Buzhinskiy

November 27

15.55-17.25

Lecture 2.4. 2010 Strategic Arms Reductions Treaty (New START (START III)

Gen. Buzhinskiy

TBA

Lecture 2.5. Nonstrategic nuclear weapons: criteria, limitations, problems

Dr. Nikitin

 

Topic 3. Missile Defence and Missile technology control regime

 

December 4

14.15-15.45

Lecture 3.1. The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (1972) and programs of development of missile defence in 1972 – 2002

Gen. Buzhinskiy

December 4

15.55-17.25

Lecture 3.2. Development of missile defence systems from 2002. Modern bilateral and multilateral dialogue on missile defence.

Gen. Buzhinskiy

December 11

14.15-15.45

Lecture 3.3. Legal and institutional framework of missile technology control regime

Dr. Malov (TBC)

 

Topic 5. Chemical and Biological Weapons

 

December 11

15.55-17.25

Lecture 5.3. Biological Weapons and Biological Weapons Convention

Dr. Malov (TBC)

 

Topic 4. Conventional arms control and its impacts on nuclear arms control and disarmament

 

December 14

17.35 – 19.05

Lecture/Seminar 4.1. Current issues of arms control in Europe

Gen. Buzhinskiy

December 14

19.15 – 20.45

Lecture 4.2. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV).

 

Gen. Buzhinskiy

 

Topic 6. Militarization of outer space

 

December 18

14.15-15.45

Lecture 6.1. Space activity in the world: the modern stage

Mr. Yermakov

December 18

15.55-17.25

Lecture 6.2. Current international legal framework of outer space use, initiatives on and prospects of arms control in outer space

Mr. Yermakov

 

TEST

 

December 21

17.35-19.05

Test

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TOPIC 1. Introduction to Modern Arms Control and Disarmament Issues.

November 6, Monday. 14.15-15.45

Lecture 1.1. Introduction to modern arms control and disarmament problems..

 

Dr. Evgeny P. Buzhinskiy

Summary: Definition of disarmament and arms control. Arms control in the context of nonproliferation, disarmament, strategic stability and global security. Conventional and strategic weapons. Q&A on current arms control and European security issues

 

Essential Readings

 

General Readings

Web resources

 

 

November 6, Monday. 15.55 – 17.25

Lecture 1.2. The Origins of Strategic Stability Theory

Dr. Alexander G. Savelyev

Summary: The students will receive basic information on the development of the strategic stability concept, first of all in the United States. The works of several key persons, who developed this concept, will be a subject of the lecture. Alongside with historical aspects, the present vision of strategic stability will be presented and discussed. Special attention will be paid to the interrelation between strategic offensive and strategic defensive forces.

Essential Readings

1. Brodie Bernard (ed.), Frederick Sherwood Dunn, Arnold Wolfers, Percy Ellwood Corbett, William Thornton, Rickert Fox. Atomic Power and World Order. Yale University. Institute of International Studies. Harcourt, Brace, 1946.

2. Brodie Bernard. Strategy in the Missile Age. RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, Ca., January 15, 1959, R-335.

3. Kahn Herman. On Thermonuclear War. Princeton University Press. 1960.

4. Kissinger Henry. Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy. Harper & Brothers. 1957.

5. Schelling Thomas C. The Reciprocal Fear of Surprise Attack. The RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, Ca., P-1342, 16 April 1958. Revised 28 May 1958.

6. Schelling Thomas C. The Strategy of Conflict. Harvard University. Cambridge, Massachusetts. London, England. 1960, 366 pp.

7. Wohlstetter Albert. "The Delicate Balance of Terror," Foreign Affairs, Vol. 37, No. 2 (January 1959), pp. 211-234.

8. X. (George F. Kennan) "The Sources of Soviet Conduct". Foreign Affairs 25, no. 4 (1947), pp. 566–582.

General Readings

1. Кокошин А.А. Проблемы обеспечения стратегической стабильности. 2-е издание, Москва, Едиториал УРСС, 2011.

2. Корниенко Георгий Маркович. Холодная война. Свидетельство ее участника. Москва, Олма-Пресс, 2001.

3. Савельев А.Г. Политические и военно-стратегические аспекты договоров по СНВ. Москва, ИМЭМО РАН, 2000.

4. Arbatov Alexei (ed.). Implications of Strategic Defense Deployments for US-Russian Relations. The Henry L. Stimson Center. Report No. 4. June 1992.

5. Brodie Bernard. The Development of Nuclear Strategy. International Security, Vol. 2, No. 4, (Spring 1978), pp. 65-83.

6. Carter Ashton B., Steinbruner John D., Zraket Charles A. (editors). Managing Nuclear Operations. The Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C. 1987.

7. Colby Elbridge A., Gerson Michael S. (ed.). Strategic Stability: Contending Interpretations. Strategic Studies Institute and US Army War College. 2013.

8. Davis Mark W. Reagan's Real Reason for SDI. The Hoover Institution. Policy Review October & November 2000. October 1, 2000.

9. Kim R. (Kim R. Holmes). Basic Deterrence on Strategic Defense. The Heritage Foundation. Backgrounder #621 On National Security and Defense. December 2, 1987.

10. Lakoff Sanford and York Herbert F. A Shield in Space? Technology, Politics, and the Strategic Defense Initiative. University of California Press. Berkeley Los Angeles Oxford, 1989.

11. Luttwak Edward N. Strategy. The Logic of War and Peace. Moscow, Dmitriy Pozharskiy University, 2012.

12. Medalia Jonathan E. The MX Basing Debate: The Reagan Plan and Alternatives. Issue brief number IB81165. The Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service. Major Issues System. November 1981.

13. Powell Robert. Nuclear Deterrence Theory, Nuclear Proliferation, and National Missile Defense. International Security, Vol. 27, No. 4 (Spring 2003), pp. 86-118.

14. Schelling Thomas C. The Future of Arms Control. Operations Research, Vol. 9, No. 5, (Sep.-Oct., 1961), pp. 722-731.

15. Schelling Thomas C. Arms and Influence. (The Henry L. Stimson Lectures Series), Yale University Press, September 10th 1967.

16. Schwartz William A. and Derber Charles. The Nuclear Seduction. Why the Arms Race Doesn't Matter—and What Does. University of California Press. Berkeley Los Angeles Oxford, 1989.

17. Shultz George P., Drell Sidney D., Goodby Lames E. (editors). Deterrence. Its Past and Future. Hoover Institution Press, 2011.

18. Suri Jeremi. America’s Search for a Technological Solution to the Arms Race: The Surprise Attack Conference of 1958 and a Challenge for “Eisenhower Revisionists”. Blackwell Publishers. Diplomatic History, Vol. 21, No. 3, (Summer 1997), pp. 417-451.

19. Thompson Nicholas. The Hawk and the Dove: Paul Nitze, George Kennan and the History of the Cold War. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2009.

20. Yost David S. Strategic Stability in the Cold War. Lessons for Continuing Challenges. Proliferation Papers. IFRI, Security Study Center, Winter 2011.

21. Zarate Robert, Sokolsky Henry (ed.). Nuclear Heuristics: Selected Writings of Albert and Roberta Wohlstetter. Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College, 2009.

 

Topic 5. Chemical and Biological Weapons

November 13, Monday. 14.15 – 15.45

Lecture 5.1. Lecture. Chemical Weapons and Chemical Weapons Convention

Ms. Kochkurova

Summary: The students will receive basic information on the history and current status of Chemical Weapons Convention.

Essential Readings

  1. The Chemical Weapons Convention

 

Web resources

  1. Organisation for the prohibition of chemical weapons https://www.opcw.org/

 

November 13, Monday.  15.55 – 17.25                                   

Seminar 5.2. Lecture. Chemical Weapons and Chemical Weapons Convention

Ms. Kochkurova

Summary: The students will receive basic information on the history and current status of Chemical Weapons Convention.

Essential Readings

  1. The Chemical Weapons Convention
  2. https://www.opcw.org/chemical-weapons-convention/download-the-cwc/

  3. http://tass.ru/politika/4692880

  4. Postol's article regarding alleged nerve agent attack on April 4, 2017

  5. http://www.moonofalabama.org/images5/OPCW-UN_JIM_7th_Report.pdf

  6. https://www.opcw.org/news/article/opcw-fact-finding-mission-confirms-use-of-chemical-weapons-in-khan-shaykhun-on-4-april-2017/

  7. https://www.opcw.org/documents-reports/fact-sheets/ 

 

Web resources

Organisation for the prohibition of chemical weapons https://www.opcw.org/

 

 

 

 

 

TOPIC 2. Current state and prospects of bilateral arms control and nuclear reductions

November 20, Monday. 14.15-15.45

November 20, Monday. 15.55-17.25

Lecture 2.1., Seminar 2.2.  Arms Control Decision-Making in the USSR.

Dr. Alexander G. Savelyev

Summary: During the lecture the students will receive basic knowledge about general configuration of the arms control decision-making process in the USSR. The role of different Soviet agencies as well as key persons will be the subject of special attention. A number of concrete examples of contradictions and cooperation inside the Soviet top-level decisions-makers will also be analyzed.

Essential Readings

 

* Savelyev A., Detinov N. "The Big Five: Arms Control Desicion-Making in the Soviet Union". Praeger. London. 1995.

 

November 27, Monday. 14.15-15.45

Lecture 2.3.  History of nuclear arms control and nuclear reductions.

Dr. Evgeny P. Buzhinskiy

Summary: Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties (SALT I and SALT II);

Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF Treaty)

Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties (START-1 and START-2)

Treaty on Strategic Offensive Reductions

(SORT 2002)

Essential Readings

Evgeny Buzhinsky The Future on Dialogue on BMD, INF Forces and Conventional Forces in Europe in the Light of Warsaw NATO Summit Results Russia Confidential, Issue No 5 (233), July 2016 

General Readings

 

 

 

 

November 27, Monday. 15.55-17.25

Lecture 2.4. 2010 Strategic Arms Reductions Treaty (New START (START III)

Dr. Evgeny P. Buzhinskiy

Summary:

Essential Readings

New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (New START), Signed in Prague, April 8, 2010

 

General Readings

TIME TBA

Lecture 2.5. Nonstrategic nuclear weapons: criteria, limitations, problems

Dr. Alexander I. Nikitin

Summary:

Essential Readings

* Taina Susiluoto. Tactical Nuclear Weapons Time for Control. UNIDIR, 2002

* Russian and NATO Non-Strategic Nuclear Forces, briefing to NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Preparedness for Nuclear Radiological Threats, Los Angeles, November 18, 2014.

* Non-strategic nuclear weapons problems of control and reduction. Anatoli Diakov, Eugene Miasnikov and Timur Kadyshev. Publication of the Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, 2004.

* Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons, Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, 29 May 2012

                                                          General Readings

* Evgeny Buzhinsky, Anatoly Dyakov, Evgeny Ilyin, Alexander Kolbin, and others. The Future of Non-Strategic Nuclear Weapons in Europe: Options AvailableSecurity Index (International Edition) No. 2 (103), Spring 2013

* Non-strategic Nuclear Weapons in Europe: Possible Scope and Conditions for Information Sharing, Transparency Measures and Verification, by Eugene Miasnikov, Working paper for The Warsaw Workshop: Prospects for information sharing and confidence building on Non-Strategic Weapons in Europe, Warsaw, Poland, 7-8 February, 2013 

* Addressing Nonstrategic Nuclear Forces. Euro-Atlantic Security Initiative, February 2012.

* Nuclear Reset: arms reduction and nonproliferation. Edited by Alexei Arbatov, Vladimir Dvorkin. - Carnegie Moscow Center: Moscow, 2012. - pp. 204-219.

 

TOPIC 3. Missile Defence and Missile technology control regime

December 4, Monday. 14.15-15.45

Lecture 3.1. The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (1972) and programs of development of missile defence in 1972 – 2002

Dr. Evgeny P. Buzhinskiy

Summary:

Essential Readings

General Readings

December 4, Monday. 15.55-17.25

Lecture 3.2. Development of missile defence systems from 2002. Modern bilateral and multilateral dialogue on missile defence.

Dr. Evgeny P. Buzhinskiy

Summary:

Essential Readings

* Vladimir Dvorkin, Alexei Arbatov. Missile Defense: Confrontation and CooperationCarnegie Endowment for International Piece. Moscow, 2013.

* Steven Pifer, James Tyson. Third-Country Nuclear Forces and Possible Measures for Multilateral Arms Control. Arms Control and Non-Proliferation Series Paper 12, August 2016. Foreign Policy at Brookings.

General Readings

*Alexandra Khodakova. Missile Defense: Where Does the Danger Lie? Security index

(International Edition) No. 1 (98), WINTER 2012

*Sergei Karaganov. Missiles in Europe: Back to the Future? Russia in Global Affairs, September 25, 2016

Ballistic Missile Defense Review ReportU.S. Department of Defense, February 2010.

 

* How Strategic Anti-Missile Defense of the United States Could be Made to Work, by Prof. Theodore A. Postol, MIT, presentation at Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, March 28, 2011

* The Security Implications of Missile Defense - A Policy Perspective, by Prof. Theodore A. Postol, MIT, presentation at Tsinghua, University, Beijing, China, March 17, 2011

* Ten years without ABM Treaty. The issue of missile defense in Russia-US relations. Russia International Affairs Council Report №5 / 2012

* Nikolai Sokov, Miles Pomper. Russia’s Actions Resolve NATO Nuclear Dilemma — For Now. James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies. September 2, 2014

Web resources

* PIR Center Project “Ways Towards Nuclear Disarmament”

* Missile Defense Agency. US Department of Defense

* Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies

 

December 11, Monday. 14.15-15.45

Lecture 3.3. Legal and institutional framework of missile technology control regime

Mr. Malov (TBC)

Summary:

Essential Readings

* State Dept. on Anniversary of Missile Technology Control Regime. 16 April 2012

* Timerbaev R., Oznobishchev S., Kalyadin A., Toloraya G., Myasnikov E. Nuclear Reset: Arms Reduction and Nonproliferation 

GeneralReadings

*Веселов. В. Нераспротранение ракетных технологий: вклад России в укрепление международного режима / Международные процессы №2, 2012


*Гусынина Ю. Международно-правовые аспекты нераспространения ракетной технологии : Автореферат диссертации на соискание ученой степени кандидата юридических наук


*Дворкин В. "Дорожная карта" ядерного разоружения. Снизить риск глобальной катастрофы возможно, но потребуется немало времени / Независимое военное обозрение, 17.10.2008

Web resources

* Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). April 16, 1987.

* Missile Technology Control Regime Annex Handbook

Missile technology control regime (MTCR)

 

Topic 5. Chemical and Biological Weapons

December 11, Monday. 15.55-17.25

Lecture 5.3. Biological Weapons and Biological Weapons Convention

Dr. Malov (TBC)

 Web resources

Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction

 

 

 

TOPIC 4. Conventional arms control and its impacts on nuclear arms control and disarmament

December 14, Monday. 15.55-17.25

Lecture/Seminar 4.1. Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe and current issues of arms control in Europe

Dr. Evgeny P. Buzhinskiy

Summary:

Essential Readings

* Andrei Zagorski. Conventional Arms Control in Europe: is there a Way Out of the Stalemate? Russia: Arms Control, Disarmament and International Security. IMEMO Supplement to the Russian Edition of the SIPRI Yearbook 2012. 164-174 pp.

* Isabelle François. Conventional Arms Control In Europe. An Atlantic perspective. Russia International Affairs Council, July 3, 2013

* Ian Anthony. Death of the CFE Treaty: The need to move arms control back to the centre of security policy. SIPRI. March 12, 2015

General Readings

* Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe 1990

* Agreement on Adaptation of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe 1999

* Treaty on Open Skies

* Vienna Document 2011

* Gregory G. Govan. Conventional Arms Control in Europe: Some Thoughts About an Uncertain Future. Deep Cuts Issue Brief #5, July 2015.

* Daryl Kimball. The Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty and the Adapted CFE Treaty at a Glance. Arms Control Association. August 1, 2012

* Oleg Shakirov. Conventional Arms Control in Europe: Old Problems, New SolutionsSecurity Index (International Edition) No. 3 (104), Summer 2013. 13-23 pp

* Jacek Durkalec. Rethinking Conventional Arms Control in Europe: A Transparency-Centred Approach. Strategic File No. 7 (34), September 2013

* Managing Differences on European Security in 2015. RIAC Report. March 26, 2015

Web resources

Arms Control. OSCE web site. http://www.osce.org/what/arms-control

 

December 14, Thursday. 19.15-20.45

Lecture 4.2. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV)

Dr. Evgeny P. Buzhinskiy

Summary:

Essential Readings

* Evgeny Buzhinskiy. The Outlook for UAV Research and DevelopmentSecurity Index (International Edition) No. 2 (103), Spring 2013

General Readings

* Addressing the Spread of Cruise Missiles and Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs). NTI. March 1, 2004

* David Lochbaum. Drones at nuclear power plants: enemies or helpers? Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. March 23, 2015.

* Andrew Callam. Drone Wars: Armed Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. International Affairs Review. Volume XVIII, No. 3: Winter 2010

* Liran Antebi. Changing Trends in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: New Challenges for States, Armies and Security Industries. Military and Strategic Affairs. Volume 6 No. 2, August 2014.

* Robert J. Bunker. Terrorist and insurgent unmanned aerial vehicles: use, potentials, and military implications. Strategic Studies Institute  and U.S. Army War College Press, August 2015

* Chad C. Haddal, Jeremiah Gertler. Homeland Security: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Border Surveillance. CRS Report for Congress. July 8, 2010

* Stuart Casey-Maslen. Pandora’s box? Drone strikes under jus ad bellum, jus in bello, and international human rights law. International Review of the Red Cross, Volume 94 Number 886 Summer 2012

* Non-State Actors and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, by Eugene Miasnikov, Presentation at ISODARCO XXVI Winter Course “New Military Technologies: Implications for Strategy and Arms Control”, Andalo, Italy, 6-13 January, 2013

Web resources

 

* The UAV – Unmanned aerial vehicles

* UVS International

TOPIC 6. Militarization of outer space

December 18, Monday. 14.15-15.45

Lecture 6.1. Space activity in the world: the modern stage

Dr. Vladimir I. Yermakov

Summary:

Essential Readings

 

* Anatoly Antonov. Military Use of SpaceRussia Confidential, Issue № 8 (188), Vol.11. August 2012

* Nuclear Reset: arms reduction and nonproliferation. Edited by Alexei Arbatov, Vladimir Dvorkin. - Carnegie Moscow Center: Moscow, 2012. - pp. 457-489.

* Nuclear Proliferation: New Technologies, Weapons, Treaties. Edited by Alexei Arbatov, Vladimir Dvorkin. - Carnegie Moscow Center: Moscow, 2009. - pp. 161-185.

* Alexei Arbatov. Real and Imaginary Threats: Military Power in World Politics in the 21st Century. Carnegie Moscow Center. April 15, 2013

 

General Readings

* Nayef R.F. Al-Rodhan. Meta-Geopolitics of Outer Space: An Analysis of Space Power, Security and Governance. Pagrave Macmillan, 2012

* Pavel Luzin. Outer Space – Field For Conflicts, Field For InteractionSecurity Index (International Edition) No. 1 (86), Winter 2008/2009

* Acquisition of Space Systems, Volume 7. Past Problems and Future Challenges.

* Nancy Gallagher. Antisatellite warfare without nuclear risk: A mirage. Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. May 29, 2015

* U.S. Military Space Programs: An Overview of Appropriations and Current Issues. CRS Report for Congress. Updated August 7, 2006

Web resources

* UN Office for Outer Space Affairs

* Outer space. Reaching Critical Will

 

December 18, Monday. 15.55-17.25

Lecture 4.2. Current international legal framework of outer space use, initiatives on and prospects of arms control in outer space

Dr. Vladimir I. Yermakov

Essential Readings

* Outer space treaty. January 27, 1967

* Proposed Prevention of an Arms Race in Space (PAROS) Treaty. NTI

* Convention on the Registration of Objects Launched in Outer Space (Launch registration convention). NTI

* Nancy Gallagher. The logic for space arms control. Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. July 30, 2015

General Readings

* Brian Weeden. Alternatives to a space weapons treaty. Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. Aprol 17, 2009

* Ben Baseley-Walker, Brian Weeden. Verification in space: theories, realities and possibilities. Disarmament Forum: Arms control verification, UNIDIR, three, 2010. – pp. 39-50.

* Pavel Luzin. Outer Space – Field For Conflicts, Field For InteractionSecurity Index (International Edition) No. 1 (86), Winter 2008/2009

* Hans-Joachim Heintze. Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and International Law.

* A Ferreira-Snyman. Selected legal challenges relating to the military use of outer space, with specific reference to article iv of the outer space treaty. SAFLII

 

Web resources

 

* UN Office for Outer Space Affairs

* Outer space. Reaching Critical Will

Work in COPUOS on LTSSA guidelines

* Current international and normative framework of outer space use, international efforts on the prevention of weaponization of outer space

 

December 21, Thursday. 17.35 – 19.05

Final Test

 

 

 

 

 

       

 

loading