Chronology

The signing of the Protocol to the Treaty between the U.S. and the USSR on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems. The Protocol reduced for each side from two to one the number of permitted ABM deployment areas.
03.07.1974
Niels Bohr writes a Memorandum to President Roosevelt where he expresses deep concerns about the likelihood of post-war disagreements between the states regarding the atomic issue.
03.07.1944

International Security Index iSi

PIR PRESS LOGO

PIR PRESS NEWS

29.06.2020

PIR Center continues to publish policy papers, which were prepared for a joint seminar on reducing nuclear risks during great power competition, which was co-organized together with the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS). As it appears that such competition is already underway, we decided to release two policy memos originally prepared for the seminar under one cover “Strategic (In)Stability: Perspectives from the U.S.”. As discussed by the authors, there is some overlooked potential for constructive engagement between Russian and the United States with regards to arms control and emerging technologies.

22.06.2020

«Active involvement of the organizing partners, academic advisors, and instructors of the Dual Degree Master`s Program allows us to maintain a high level, dynamics, and quality of the educational process. Students of the program continue to show impressive results, and the recent master's thesis defense is a good confirmation of that», – Educational Program Director of PIR Center Yulia Sych.

19.06.2020

“The existing uncertainty regarding the US and Russian capabilities points to the following problem: lacking reliable information about each other’s arsenals would force both parties to prepare for the worst-case scenarios. Each would seek to ramp up its strategic arsenal, leading to a strategic arms race. In the case of the US, the situation is complicated by the fact that Washington is in the final phases of planning the structure of its nuclear forces for the next several decades”, - PIR Center experts on the scenarios should the US refuse to extend the New START Treaty.

International uranium enrichment center in Angarsk

PIR Center's project on International uranium enrichment center is completed. This page is not being updated any more.


Angarsk_pic1.jpgAt the meeting of the Interstate Council of the Eurasian Economic Community held  in St. Petersburg on January 25, 2006, Russian President Vladimir Putin put forward an initiative to establish a network of international nuclear fuel cycle centers. Such centers should operate under the IAEA safeguards on the basis of nondiscriminatory access for the participating countries.

The creation of an international uranium enrichment center (IUEC) will be Russia's first step in the field of nuclear fuel cycle services. Apart from economic benefits brought by the inflow of foreign investment and the development of high-technology production, the creation of the IUEC could contribute significantly to the strengthening of the nonproliferation regime as it would encourage the participating countries to abandon their national uranium enrichment programs.

The Angarsk Electrochemical Combine (AEC), situated 130 km from the lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia, has been chosen as a site for the establishment of the center.

Angarsk_pic2.jpg

The AEC is equipped with the sixth generation gas centrifuges that are currently being modernized. The International Center will be created on the basis of the existing infrastructure on the territory of the AEC with an option of a later expansion of generating facilities. It is important to note that this center shall provide services exclusively for uranium enrichment and conversion. Spent fuel will not be transported back to the combine as it has been announced by the AEC general director Victor Shopen at the press-conference on July 21, 2006.

The original plan of the IUEC suggested participation of countries that are just starting to develop their nuclear energy capacity and, thus, do not possess uranium enrichment technologies. However, later the idea grew into a more ambitious plan which does not exclude participation of countries that have dozens of nuclear reactors, but a limited capacity to produce nuclear fuel.

At the moment, it is possible to identify KazakhstanIranJapan and the Republic of Korea as the four most plausible participants. Agreements with Ukraine may also be covered by the IUEC. Belarus has also expressed its interest in the project in spite of its limited needs for nuclear fuel. It is possible that at some point India may also consider participation in the project. In a more long-term perspective – after the expiration of the LEU-HEU contract in 2013 – the United Statesmay also be interested in placing its orders with the Russian enterprises provided that by that time American enrichment facilities in Ohio and New Mexico do not operate at the projected level.

At a later stage of the IUEC operation the center's work may be of interest to countries that are just starting to develop their nuclear energy capacities. These include VietnamEgyptIndonesiaTurkey as well as MoroccoNigeriaSaudi Arabia,Thailand, and Chile – countries that  also consider the possibility of building nuclear power stations. In addition, participation in IUEC may draw interest of countries that possess developed uranium mining industries, including Canada,Australia and Uzbekistan.


Timeline (PDF-file)

 
loading