The Role of the Women in the Areas of Nuclear Nonproliferation, Disarmament and Global Security: the Case Study of Russia image

Are our sex and gender so important for professional development in the fields of nuclear nonproliferation and disarmament and can they become an obstacle in the XXI century? The goal of this research paper is to study the role of the Russian women in the fields of nuclear nonproliferation, disarmam...

Way Out of the Arms Control Pandemic image

This research paper attempts to place nuclear disarmament and arms control in the context of the sustainable development agenda. In particular, the paper examines the possibility of applying the experience and specific mechanisms of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol to create new incentives for nuclear arms c...


PIR Center conducted an interview with Dr. Dayan Jayatilleka, Senior Advisor on International Relations to the Leader of the Opposition and Daily FT Columnist (Colombo, Sri Lanka). Since March 2022, Dayan Jayatilleka has been a member of the PIR Center Advisory Board.

In an interview with him, we ...

In an Vladimir Orlov's interview, director of PIR Center, with Jorge Ferrer, a journalist of the Spanish newspaper El Mundo, the issues of the risks of using nuclear weapons against the background of the Ukrainian conflict are touched upon. We also talked about how the Chekhov rifle differs from nu...

PIR Center conducted an interview with Professor Mustafa Kibaroglu, Ph.D in International Relations, Dean of the Faculty of Economics, Administrative and Social Sciences at the MEF University in Istanbul, a PIR Center Advisory Board member. We discussed the possibility of exporting U.S. nuclear tec...

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Security Index Authors

Abe, Nobuyasu image
City : Tokyo
Affiliation : Director of the Center for the Promotion of Disarmament and Non-Proliferation at Japan Institute of International Affairs.
Biography :

He has served as Consul-General in Boston, as Ambassador to Austria and Saudi Arabia, and as a diplomat for the Japanese government, the UN, and other international organizations in Washington, D.C., Geneva, Tel Aviv, New York, Manila, and Bern. Between 2003 and 2006, he was Under Secretary General of the UN for Disarmament Affairs, and he was also a member of the Advisory Board to the International Commission on Nuclear Nonproliferation and Disarmament and Director-General for Arms Control and Science Affairs in Tokyo. Amb. Abe has taught international relations and arms control at Sophia and Tokyo Universities and has published numerous papers on nuclear nonproliferation and disarmament.

Acton, James M. image
Affiliation : Senior Associate in the Nuclear Policy Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and a Stanton Nuclear Security Fellow.
Biography :

Dr. Ph.D. in theoretical physics from Cambridge University. His research focuses on developing realistic pathways towards a world without nuclear weapons by strengthening nonproliferation bulwarks and rethinking deterrence. Acton is the author of two studies into deterrence: “Deterrence during Disarmament: Deep Nuclear Reductions and International Security”, and “Low Numbers: a Practical Path to Deep Nuclear Reductions”. He co-chairs the Next Generation Working Group on U.S.-Russia arms control and is the joint UK member of the International Panel on Fissile Materials. He has provided evidence to the UN Secretary General’s Advisory Board on Disarmament and the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future. Acton has published in Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Foreign Affairs, New York Times, Nonproliferation Review, and Survival. From 2007 to 2009 he was a regular contributor to the widely read blog, Arms Control Wonk. E-mail address: [email protected]

Akhtamzyan, Ildar A. image
Affiliation : Associate Professor, Department of International Relations and Russian Foreign Policy, Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO University) of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation
Position : Assistant Professor
Expertise :
Nuclear nonproliferation, historical aspects
Nuclear power in the Middle East
Biography :

PhD. in Historical Sciences. Graduated from Moscow State Institute of International Relations in 1979 and since that time has been working for that Institute as a graduate student, lecturer, senior lecturer, associate professor of the History of international relations and foreign policy Department. Author of the first national course on nonproliferation (MGIMO). Participated as a lecturer in the Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute. Author of more than 60 publications in Russia and abroad on the history of international relations, arms control and nonproliferation, including two books of collected documents related to these problems. PIR Center Advisory Board member since 2002.

Albadi, Awadh image
City : Riyadh
Affiliation : Director of the Department of Research and Studies at King Faisal Centre for Research and Islamic Studies.
Aliyev Ilham image
City : Baku
Affiliation : President of Azerbaijan
Angelova Anastasia image
Affiliation : editor of the academic journals review in the Democracy and Governance newsletter published by the research committee on comparative political science of the Russian Association of Political Science
Biography :

Member of the UN Association in Bulgaria. Born in 1983. In 2007 Ms. Angelova graduated with honors the faculty of philosophy and political science of the St. Petersburg State University. In 2006 she had an internship in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria. Her research interests include Russia’s relations with the European Union, problems of adaptation of the CEE countries after the accession to the EU, and energy security.

Anne Pringle image
Biography :

In 2008-2011 - HM Ambassador of the United Kingdom to the Russian Federation.

Antipov, Sergey V. image
Affiliation : Associate Professor, Head of Department, Nuclear Safety Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences
Biography :

Doctor of Technical Sciences. Head of Department of Nuclear Safety Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences. Formerly, Head Adviser of Federal Atomic Energy Agency of Russian Federation. 2004-2006 - Deputy Head of Federal Atomic Energy Agency of Russian Federation. 2003-2004 - Deputy Minister of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation Double winner of the Kurchatov Prize. Author of more than 50 scientific articles and reports. Participant in the Chernobyl cleanup operation. Research interests: nonproliferation, physical protection, accounting and control of nuclear materials, nuclear submarine dismantlement issues within the program the Global Partnership against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. Scientific coordinator of the Nonproliferation Project in the RRC Kurchatov Institute. PIR Center Advisory Board member since 2004.

Antonov, Anatoly I. image
Affiliation : The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation
Position : Deputy Minister
Biography :

PhD in Economics, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. In 1978 he graduated from the Moscow State Institute of International Relations. He served for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) of the USSR and Russia in various positions at central office and abroad over 30 years. Since 2004 - Director of the Department for Security Affairs and Disarmament of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He has broad experience in negotiation processes. He was a head of Russian government delegations at negotiations on the Treaty on Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Review of Inhumane Weapons Convention, Elimination of Chemical Weapons Convention, Elimination of Biological Weapons Convention, Treaty on Strategic Offensive Arms. He was the head of Russian delegation at the talks with the U.S. on new START treaty. From February 2, 2011 to December 28, 2016 he held the position of a Deputy Minister of Defence of the Russian Federation. In this post he oversaw the issues of international military cooperation and organization of contacts between the Ministry of Defence and military agencies of other states. On December 28, 2016 President Vladimir Putin appointed him as Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. He is currently responsible for the military and political issues. PIR Center Advisory Board member since 2000. Member of the SuPR (Sustainable Partnership with Russia) Group since 2009. Member of the PIR Center EKS Working Group on International Cooperation in Mass Destruction Weapon Nonproliferation and Physical Nuclear Safety since 2012.

Arbatov, Alexei G. image
Affiliation : Acad., Russian Academy of Sciences, Head, Center for International Security, Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO)
Biography :

Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Historical Sciences. Head of the Center for International Security at the Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO). Member of the research council at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russian Federation. Head of the research council department on strategic planning at Security Council of Russian Federation. Member of the Carnegie Moscow Center's research council. Author of many monographs, coauthor of over 30 joint publications, numerous analytical papers, articles and booklets on international security, disarmament, and military policy published in Russia and abroad. PIR Center Advisory Board member since 2004.

Arbatova Nadezhda image
Affiliation : head of the Department on European Political Studies at the Center for European Integration, Institute for World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO), Russian Academy of Sciences
Biography :

Dr. Arbatova is also Director of the Center on International Relations at the Russian Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Europe. Furthermore, she serves as the Director of Policy Studies and Editor at the Committee Russia in the United Europe. She graduated MGIMO in 1973. In November 2003, she was granted the Onassis Foundation Professor fellowship and worked at ELIAMEP (Hellenic Foundation) on European Security and International Terrorism: The Balkan Connection. Dr. Arbatova received her Ph.D. in History from the Institute of World Economy and International Relations. In 19981999 she was visiting researcher at the Department for Strategic Studies at the Swedish National Defense College.

Arguello Irma image
City : Buenos Aires
Affiliation : Founder and Chair, Nonproliferation for Global Security Foundation (NPSGlobal)
Biography :

Founder and Chair, Nonproliferation for Global Security Foundation (NPSGlobal), Buenos Aires, Argentina. She developed a managerial career at international organizations such as ExxonMobil Corporation and the Latin American Petrochemical Association, where she held several local and international managerial positions. After she left the company, she became a consultant, specialized in strategies formulation and implementation, new projects, and management of change. Ms. Arguello pursued Defense and Security studies (Master level) at the Escuela de Defensa Nacional, Argentina. As a part of her academic activities, she is currently developing the brand new Regional Postgraduate Course on Disarmament and Nonproliferation, to be launched in 2009. For several years she has been teaching a four-week Seminar on the matter, open to the public. Her former teaching experience also includes topics like Modern Physics and Management, at several universities and institutes. Member of PIR Center International Expert Group since 2010.

Biography :

Civilian military analyst and political commentator from Pakistan.

Biography :

Doctoral Student and Research Assistant in the Department of International Relations at Bilkent University in Ankara, Turkey.

Baev, Pavel K. image
City : Oslo, Norway
Affiliation : Prof., Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO)
Biography :

In 1979 graduated from Moscow State University (Political Geography) and worked in a research institute of the USSR Ministry of Defence. After receiving PhD in International Relations from the Institute of USA and Canada (Moscow) in 1988, he worked at the Institute of Europe (Moscow) until October 1992, when he joined PRIO. In 1995-2001 he was a co-editor of Security Dialogue, a quarterly policy-oriented journal produced at PRIO, and in 2000-2004 he was the head of the Foreign and Security Policies program. Author of several books, among them The Russian Army in a Time of Troubles (London: SAGE, 1996). His articles on the Russian military posture, Russian-European relations, peacekeeping and conflict management in Europe appeared in numerous respected academic journals. Dr. Baev also prepares weekly comments for Eurasia Daily Monitor. PIR Center Advisory Board member since 2007.

Baluyevsky, Yuri N. image
Affiliation : Internal troops, Ministry of Interior of Russia
Position : Сommander-in-chief
Biography :

General of Army. In 1970 he graduated from the Leningrad Higher Military Command School, in 1980 - the Military Academy named after M.V. Frunze, in 1990 - the Military Academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the USSR. In 1982-1988 he served in the Main Operations Directorate of the General Staff of the USSR Armed Forces  on the leading positions. Since 1990 - deputy head direction, head in the direction of the Main Operations Directorate of the General Staff. In 1993-1995 - Chief of the Staff and First Deputy Commander of the Group of Russian Forces in the Transcaucasus. From June 1995 - Head of Department, Deputy Chief of the Main Operations Directorate of the General Staff of the Russian Armed Forces. From August 1997 - Chief of the Main Operations Directorate of the General Staff - First Deputy Chief of the General Staff of the Russian Armed Forces. In July 2001 he was First Deputy Chief of the General Staff of the Russian Armed Forces. In July 2004 bacme Chief of the General Staff of the Russian Armed Forces, First Deputy Minister of Defense. In November 2004 he was appointed chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff of the CIS. In the 2008-2012 period. Deputy Secretary of the Security Council of the Russian Federation.

Barsky Kirill image
Position : Russian President's Special Envoy to Shanghai Cooperation Organization
Biography :

Holds Ph.D. in Historical Sciences. In 1989 he has graduated from the Moscow State Institute majoring in International Relations. From 1989 he worked in the Foreign Ministry. Previously served as a Minister-Counsellor at the Russian Embassy in Indonesia and Deputy Director of the Asia-Pacific Cooperation Department of the Russian Foreign Ministry. He has numerous publications related to the Asia-Pacific region, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, Russian-Chinese relations, China's history, culture and foreign policy. He is fluent in English and Chinese.

Blix Hans image
City : Stokholm
Biography :

Politician, diplomat. From 2000 to 2003 served as Head of the UN Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC); in 1987-1997 – as the Director General of IAEA; in 1978-1979 – as the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Sweden. From 1961 to 1981 Hans Blix was a member of the Swedish delegation to the UN General Assembly. From 1962 to 1978 He was a member of the Swedish delegation at the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva. Hans Blix obtained law degree at Cambridge (UK), and the Universities of Uppsala (Sweden) and Columbia (USA), received the degree of Doctor of Law at Stockholm University (Sweden).

Bokhanovsky Leonid image
Affiliation : Secretary-General of the Gas Exporting Countries Forum (GECF)
Biography : Graduated from the Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO) in 1981 and the Higher School of Economics in 1998. Appointed Soviet attache in Algeria in 1981, in charge of bilateral trade and energy relations. In 1983–1994 served as the Second Secretary at the Department for Pan-European Cooperation of the Soviet Foreign Ministry, in charge of Russia's accession to the Council of Europe and the work of the Russian delegation at the Council. Starting from 1994 held senior jobs in the commercial and banking sector. From 2001 and until his election as GECF Secretary-General served as First Vice President of the Russian oil and gas engineering company Stroytransgaz.
Borodavkin Alexey image
Affiliation : Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations Office and other International Organizations in Geneva, Permanent Representative to the Conference on Disarmament.
Biography :

Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. Joined the diplomatic service in 1975. Held various diplomatic posts in Moscow and abroad (Thailand, Slovakia, Austria). Head of the Fourth CIS Department of the Russian Foreign Ministry in 1999–2002. Russian Ambassador to Slovakia in 2002–2004. Russia's Permanent Representative at the OSCE in Vienna. Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation in  2008 - 2011. Since 5 December 2011 - Ambassador and Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations Office and other International Organizations in Geneva, Permanent Representative to the Conference on Disarmament.

Bratersky Maksim image
Affiliation : Professor of International Relations of the State University – Higher School of Economic (Russia), Department of World Politics; Senior Researcher of the Center for Comprehensive European and International Studies; Visiting Professor of the Stanford Overseas Studies Program in Moscow
Biography :

Graduated from the Leningrad State University in 1984. He has over 40 academic publications on international relations and security.

Brooks, Linton image
Affiliation : Senior Advisor, CSIS; Research Fellow, National Defense University
Biography :

Linton F. Brooks is an independent consultant on national security issues, a senior adviser at CSIS, a distinguished research fellow at the National Defense University, and an adviser to four of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories. He served from July 2002 to January 2007 as administrator of DOE’s National Nuclear Security Administration, where he was responsible for the U.S. nuclear weapons program and for DOE’s international nuclear nonproliferation programs. Ambassador Brooks has five decades of experience in national security, much of it associated with nuclear weapons. His government career has included service as deputy administrator for nuclear nonproliferation at the National Nuclear Security Administration, assistant director of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, chief U.S. negotiator for the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, director of defense programs and arms control on the National Security Council staff, and a number of U.S. Navy and Defense Department assignments as a 30-year career naval officer. Ambassador Brooks holds degrees in physics from Duke University and in government and politics from the University of Maryland and is a distinguished graduate of the U.S. Naval War College. He has been associated with the CSIS Project of Nuclear Issues (PONI) since its inception.

Bunn, Matthew image
Biography :

Before joining the Kennedy School in January 1997, he served for three years as an adviser to the Office of Science and Technology Policy, where he played a major role in U.S. policies related to the control and disposition of weapons-usable nuclear materials in the U.S. and the former Soviet Union, and directed a secret study for President Clinton on security for nuclear materials in Russia.

Chernykh, Sergei A. image
Biography :

Graduated from Military Academy of General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. Professor of Academy of Defense, Military Law and Security problems. Works at the system of military-technical cooperation since 1990.

Chidyausiku Boniface image
Affiliation : Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Republic of Zimbabwe to the Russian Federation.
Biography :

President of the Third Session of the Preparatory Committee of the 2010 NPT Review Conference, the chairman of the Main Committee One Review Conference of the NPT.

Churkin, Vitaly I. image
Affiliation : Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the UN, Representative of the Russian Federation to the UN Security Council
Biography :

Vitaly Churkin is a Russian diplomat. He graduated from Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO) in 1974 and holds a doctorate in history. He holds the title of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. He served in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs both domestically and abroad (United States, Belgium). In the Soviet Union, Churkin was an advisor to the Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1989-1990, Press Secretary for the Minister of Foreign Affairs E. Shevardnadze, Head of the Office of Information of the MFA, and member of the MFA Collegium. In 1992, he was appointed Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. He served as the Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to Belgium from 1994-1998, an Ambassador-at-Large for the MFA beginning in April 1998, and the Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to Canada from 1998-2003. He speaks English, French, and Mongolian.

Cirincione, Joseph image
City : Washington D.C.
Affiliation : President, Ploughshares Fund
Biography :

President of the Ploughshares Fund. Cirincione had previously served as Vice President for National Security and International Policy at the Center for American Progress in Washington, DC, and for eight years as the director for nonproliferation at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. He is the author of Bomb Scare: The History and Future of Nuclear Weapons (2007) and Deadly Arsenals: Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Threats (2006). He is on the adjunct faculty of the Georgetown University School of Foreign Service, where he teaches in the Master of Science in Foreign Service Program, and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. He has written over 200 articles on defense issues, produced two DVDs on proliferation, appears frequently in the media, and has given over 150 lectures around the world in the past two years. He is the author of Bomb Scare: The History and Future of Nuclear Weapons (Columbia University Press, Spring 2007). He is the co-author of Contain and Engage: A New Strategy for Resolving the Iranian Nuclear Crisis (March 2007), two editions of Deadly Arsenals: Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Threats (2005 and 2002), Universal Compliance: A Strategy for Nuclear Security (March 2005) and WMD in Iraq, (January 2004). He has held positions at the Henry L. Stimson Center, the U.S. Information Agency, and the Center for Strategic and International Studies. He is an honors graduate of Boston College and holds a Masters of Science with highest honors from the Georgetown School of Foreign Service. He is happily married with two children. PIR Center Advisory Board member since 2004. Member of the Sustainable Partnership with Russia (SuPR) Group since 2009.

Daniel Russell image
Affiliation : Deputy Assistant Secretary of State responsible for relations with Russia, Ukraine, Moldova, Belarus and for international security and arms control issues in the State Department's Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs
Daniel Zappelli image
Affiliation : Attorney General of the Republic and Canton of Geneva
Biography :

A Swiss national, Zappelli was born in 1964. In 1982–1986, he studied law in the Fribourg University in Switzerland and then a year later also graduated the Faculty of European Law in the Exeter University in the U.K. From then on he worked as lawyer at Hauchmann & Monfrini law office in Geneva until 1996. Later on he moved to civil service and till 1999 carried on as Assistant to the Attorney General in Geneva. In 2000, he became a judge at the tribunal of first instance and the President of the Commercial Chamber. And two years later he was appointed at his current post of Attorney General.

Danilov, Dmitry A. image
Affiliation : Head, Department for European Security, Institute of Europe of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Biography :

Ph.D. in Economics, Professor. Graduated from Moscow State University in 1982. Prior to 1988 - Senior Researcher at the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation. He is a member of PIR Center Advisory Board. Author of over 150 publications. Fluent in French and English. PIR Center Advisory Board member since 2011.

Denisov Andrey image
Affiliation : First Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation
Biography :

Born in 1952, Amb. Denisov graduated the Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO) in 1974. In 1973–1981 he worked in the Soviet economic and trade mission in China. In 1981–1991 he joined the International Department of the CPSU’s Central Committee, as an expert on China. In 1992–1997 he was a Counselor and then Senior Counselor at the Russian embassy in Beijing. In 1997 he was appointed Director of the Department of Economic Cooperation of the Russian MFA. He worked until 2000 when he was appointed to head the RF embassy in Egypt. In 2001–2004 Amb. Denisov was Deputy Foreign Minister of the Russian Federation. In 2004–2006 he served as Permanent Representative to the UN. Since 2006 Amb. Denisov is the First Deputy Foreign Minister.

Deriglazova Larisa image
City : Tomsk, Russia
Affiliation : Profesor at the World Politics Faculty, Tomsk State University
Biography :

Professor of the political sciences. Graduated from the history faculty at the Tomsk State University (TSU) in 1985. In years 1991-93 - PhD candidate. From 2006 to 2009 - Lecturer at the TSU. 2003-2010 -   deputy head of the world politics faculty at the TSU. 1998 - 2002 - deputy head of the Russian Program on Syberia and Far East. Participant of the Civil Education project held by the Yale University. 1996-2002 - lecturer at the TSU, world politics faculty. 1994-1996 - methodological employee of the history faculty at the TSU.

Devyatnikov Andrey image
City : Tyumen, Russia
Affiliation : Postgraduate Student and Lecturer at the Chair of Modern History and International Relations by the Institute of History and Political Sciences, Tyumen State University
Biography :

participant of PIR Center Summer School 2008

Dhanapala, Jayantha image
City : Sri Lanka
Affiliation : Member, Supervisory Council, International Luxembourg Forum
Biography :

Before 2007 he was a former United Nations Under-Secretary-General for Disarmament Affairs and a former Ambassador of Sri Lanka to the USA and to the UN Office in Geneva. He is a member of the Governing Board of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI). As a Sri Lankan diplomat Dhanapala served in London, Beijing, Washington D.C., New Delhi, and Geneva and he has represented Sri Lanka at a number of international conferences chairing several of them including the historic NPT Review and Extension Conference of 1995. Dhanapala is also a former Director of the UN Institute for Disarmament Research. Jayantha Dhanapala is a member of the Board of Sponsors of The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists and a governing board member of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Dr. Dhanapala was Sri Lanka's official candidate for the post of Secretary-General of the United Nations, before withdrawing from the race on 29 September 2006. From 2007 - President of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs. PIR Center Advisory Board member since 2004.

Diakov Anatoly image
Biography :

Doctor of Physics and Mathematics, Member of PIR Center Advisory Board. Anatoly Diakov specializes in quantum radiophysics, physics of lasers, nonequilibrium physics. He has over 40 scientific publications.

Diaz-Balart, Fidel image
Biography :

Chairman of the Cuban Atomic Energy Commission from 1980 to 1992. Educated in Russia and holds a Ph.D. in physics and mathematical sciences from the Kurchatov Atomic Energy Institute. In 1984-1993 was head of the department of physical sciences at the Cuban Academy of Sciences.

Duarte Sergio image
City : Brasilia
Affiliation : Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
Position : President
Biography :

A career diplomat, who from July 2007 to February 2012 served as United Nations High Representative for Disarmament Affairs, with the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Ambassador Duarte served the Brazilian Foreign Service for forty eight years. He was the Ambassador of Brazil in a number of countries, including Austria, Croatia, Slovakia and Slovenia, China, Canada, Nicaragua, Switzerland, the United States, Argentina and Italy. In addition, he has been posted as the Brazilian representative to several International organizations, focusing on disarmament issues. From 1999 to 2000, he was the Chairman of the Board of Governors of the IAEA. Ambassador Duarte was a representative in international organizations on disarmament issues. Member of PIR Center International Expert Group since 2012.

Dvorkin, Vladimir Z. image
City : Moscow
Affiliation : Professor, Major General (retired), Chief Research Associate, Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO)
Biography :

Professor. Major General (Ret.), Doctor of Technical Sciences, a top military expert, General Dvorkin was one of the main authors of the Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces and Strategic Missile Forces policy documents. He participated as an expert in the preparation of the SALT II, INF, START I, and START II treaties for many years, and made a noticeable contribution to the formation of the Soviet and Russian position at the negotiations on the limitation and reduction of strategic weapons. He participated in the testing of the first Soviet nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines and the first submerged launches of ballistic missiles. He is an active member of the Russian Academy of Missile and Artillery Sciences, the Academy of Military Sciences, the Russian Engineering Academy, the International Engineering Academy, and the Academy of Cosmonautics. He is the author of more than 350 academic papers and numerous articles. His academic interests include missile dismantlement issues, combating terrorism, and nuclear safety and security. PIR Center Advisory Board member since 2003.

Edward M. Ifft image
Affiliation : Adjunct Professor in the Security Studies Program in the Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University
Biography :

Edward Ifft has been involved in negotiating and implementing many of the key arms control agreements of the past 35 years. He has a Ph.D. in physics from Ohio State University. hile a graduate student, he was selected to spend a year at Moscow State University and the Institute for Physical Problems of the U.S.S.R Academy of Sciences under the U.S.U.S.S.R cultural exchange program. He is a graduate of the Senior Managers in Government program at Harvard University. Dr. Ifft began his government career at the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. He then moved to the State Department, where he continued to work on strategic arms control, as well as on constraints on nuclear testing, serving as the Deputy U.S. Negotiator at the 1974 negotiations on the Threshold Test Ban Treaty in Moscow. In 1978, he accepted a detail to NASA for three years, serving as Head of the Office of International Program Policy and Executive Secretary of the U.S.U.S.S.R Space Cooperation Agreement. Upon returning to the State Department, he served as Senior Policy Advisor and then Senior State Department Representative to the START negotiations in Geneva. After that he became Deputy Director of the OnSite Inspection Agency. In 1998, he became Senior Advisor and State Department liaison to DTRA until his retirement from the Senior Executive Service in 2002. He also served as the last U.S. Commissioner for the ABM Treaty until the U.S. withdrew from the Treaty in 2002. Dr. Ifft has lectured at many universities and government laboratories and in more than 10 countries. Dr. Ifft continues to work parttime in the State Department as a Foreign Affairs Officer.

Einhorn, Robert image
City : USA
Affiliation : Senior Fellow, Brookings Institution
Biography :

Before joining Brookings in May 2013, served as the U.S. Department of State special advisor for nonproliferation and arms control, a position created by Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in 2009. Between 2001 and 2009, was a senior advisor at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), where directed the Proliferation Prevention Program. Prior to joining CSIS, was assistant secretary of state for nonproliferation from 1999 to 2001, deputy assistant secretary of state for political-military affairs from 1992 to 1999, and a member of the State Department policy planning staff from 1986 to 1992. Between 1972 and 1986, held various positions at the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA), including as ACDA’s representative to the strategic arms reduction talks with the Soviet Union. PIR Center Advisory Board member since 2007. 

Evstafiev, Dmitry G. image
City : Moscow
Affiliation : Department of Integrated Communications, The Higher School of Economics
Position : Professor
Biography :

Doctor of Political Science. Prof., National Research University - Higher School of Economics, earlier - vice president of KROS Public Relations Development Company. Leading expert on the military and political facets of Russian national security, U.S. foreign and military policy, and regional aspects of nuclear nonproliferation. In 2001-2008 worked as Director of the Techsnabexport (TENEX) Public Relations Department and Deputy Director General of the National Laboratory for Foreign Policy. An experienced editor, he is a co-author of several books and monographs, and an author of several articles as well as publications in Russian and foreign academic and political press. In 1995-2003 he was a PIR Center senior research associate. PIR Center Security Index Editorial Board Member. 12/17

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