Russia and India signed an international agreement on cooperation in the construction of 4 additional units at Kudankulam, as well as on the construction of nuclear power plants according to Russian projects on new sites in India
The end of the strategic offensive arms reduction period under the Treaty on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms (START I Treaty)
The Treaty on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms (START I), transformed by the Lisbon Protocol of 1992 comes into force
The adoption of Memoranda on Security Guarantees on the part of Russia, the U.S. and the UK. The memoranda are needed because of Ukraine, Byelorussia and Kazakhstan joining NPT.
Ukraine joins the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty as a non-nuclear weapons state.
A U.S. sea-borne aircraft with an atomic bomb onboard crashes 200 miles from Okinawa.
The first world nuclear propelled surface ship, the icebreaker Lenin, is commissioned.
France sets up an atomic bomb development committee within the Commissariat for Atomic Energy.



"The development of nuclear energy in Saudi Arabia is a forward-looking and important task. The State Atomic Energy Corporation “Rosatom” has every chance to become one of the KSA’s key partners in the development of peaceful uses of nuclear energy because it already has extensive experience in working with nuclear newcomer countries in difficult climatic conditions with lack of the necessary infrastructure", ‒ Inna Rodina, PIR Center intern. 


“It is difficult for me to say how many pillars PIR Center is based on, but one of them is definitely the interns. Their hard work, intelligence, and creativity make a substantial contribution to our work», ‒ Sergey Semenov, Nuclear Nonproliferation & Russia Program Coordinator.


International security is not a center of the world, but a reflection of profound processes that nowadays are characterized by a growing randomness and shrinking planning horizon. Confidence, privacy and confidentiality of diplomacy are deteriorating. Ensuring security requires not only technical, but also political decisions. Under such circumstances the aim of the Russian foreign policy is to find a balance between development and security amidst an incoming new wave of globalization. To secure its status of a great power, Russia needs to preserve its relevance among other players and play a role of additional element to the situation of unsteady equilibrium.

Vladimir Orlov: Can it be true that PIR Center is a quarter of a century old today?

Dear members of the PIR Community,

Dear PIR People,

Can it really be true that PIR Center is a quarter of a century old today? It would be a great occasion for a grand celebration, wouldn’t it. But I still cannot quite believe it.

When me and a tiny team of my associates were establishing PIR Center in the spring of 1994, working in a small room on the corner of Tverskaya Ulitsa and Strastny Boulevard overlooking the Pushkin statue in the very heart of Moscow, I could hardly imagine that this great institution would live long enough to see the new century and indeed the new millennium. If someone told me back at the time that it would mark its 25th anniversary in Moscow, Geneva and New York, or that greetings would be pouring in from all over the world to what is now a highly reputable international nongovernmental organization, I probably wouldn’t believe them. After all, how many fly-by-night NGOs have we all seen over the years – here today, gone tomorrow?

Our PIR Center, however, is a different matter altogether. It is not just one of the oldest, but also one of the most respected think-tanks here in Russia as well as internationally. PIR has become something of a password. Say the word, and it’s clear you belong to a community of people doing a great and important work, delivering top quality, and operating with a view to far horizons.

I’ve been through the PIR Center School”; “I’m part of the PIR Community”: these words open many important doors. They are like a magic key we’ve wrought together over the past quarter-century. And by “we” I mean fifteen hundred staffers, advisors, experts and contributors to our publications, as well as colleagues from half a hundred states who’ve graduated from our various education programs.

PIR Center, turns out, is here to stay. Mission impossible has now become mission accomplished.

The acronym PIR no longer requires translation or explanation: see for yourselves in Delhi, Nur-Sultan, Tehran, Washington, Bern, Havana or Baku… This is the result of your work, your hard slog, your speeches, articles and reports – and most importantly, your thoughts and ideas. Our thoughts and ideas, the PIR ideas.

And that certainly deserves my sincere congratulations. Three cheers to that, and a great Hurrah!

Vladimir Orlov

PIR Center Founder