PIR Center continues a new section "PIR Test". This project in the form of a game carries equally educational, research and analytical meaning. Users are given the opportunity to take the test - to answer one of the designated questions. Our today's PIR Test is dedicated to the international document that is considered to be the very first to become the forerunner of the modern arms control system.


PIR Center is taking part in the 10th NPT Review Conference on August 1-26, 2022, where for almost a month at the UN headquarters in New York, delegations from 191 signatory countries of the NPT will discuss the implementation of this important agreement in the field of international security.


This research paper attempts to place nuclear disarmament and arms control in the context of the sustainable development agenda. In particular, the paper examines the possibility of applying the experience and specific mechanisms of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol to create new incentives for nuclear arms control and disarmament. Considering the devastating environmental consequences of nuclear weapons use, the nuclear-weapon states should take responsibility for possessing nuclear weapons just as they took responsibility for carbon emissions.


The 2022 Review Conference of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, inherited from covid 2020 and repeatedly postponed due to the raging pandemic, opens in New York on August 1. Four weeks of work of the NPT member States delegations – what will it be: a breakthrough to a more reliable cementing of the Treaty? Beating around the bush and straining to demonstrate its own indispensability? Or a harsh disputes that will call into question both the value and the effectiveness of this document?

Participants feedback

"Considering the scientific and educational component of the program the purpose is undoubtedly achieved! Many thanks to PIR Center for bringing us together with such great lecturers", – Nazira Abdykaimova, MA Student, Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Kyrgyz Republic, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan

"It is very good and well-organized program in a great location – I would like to thank the PIR Center leadership and the organizers of the Summer School # 13. As a member of the Foreign Ministry, I believe that the knowledge acquired during training at the Summer School will be extremely useful in my career", – Atageldi Annayev, First Secretary, Department of American countries, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Turkmenistan, Ashkhabad, Turkmenistan

"The School program is very rich! It provides good opportunity to get acquainted with the ideas of unique thinkers and to meet them personally. I plan to use this knowledge in my journalistic work", – Artem Bagiev, International Journalist, Moscow, Russia

“Great topics for lectures and seminars, very high level of experts. The organizers succeeded in creating all necessary conditions for work and study. The topics of lectures and seminars were relevant, scientific and educational component of the program can be evaluated as ‘excellent’. I also want to mention a well-organized informational support and good selection of participants, each of whom was a professional in his field", – Serik Dauletov, Research Fellow, Institute of Statehood, Security and Development Issues “Nazarbayev Center”, Astana, Kazakhstan

“Summer School of PIR Center is one-of-a-kind. I have not seen similar programs before, with participation of such competent professionals, as well as active and former government officials of the highest level. I enjoyed the atmosphere as we could communicate freely with other participants as well as with lecturers", – Vadim Demidov, Intern, Ministry of the Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Belarus, Minsk, Belarus

"Scientific and educational component of the program of the Summer School was prepared very thoroughly and the School atmosphere was very warm and friendly. Each and every speaker is an undisputed expert in his field. I also admire the individual approach to the participants. The excursions, organized for us, were fascinating, and in particular I enjoyed our visit to Abramtsevo museum and to the Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius", – Assel Dyussembayeva, Chief Expert, Information Support Department, Atomic Energy Agency of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Astana, Kazakhstan

"I would like to point out that the fact that Summer School took place in such a beautiful place as Abramtsevo had the most favorable impact on the educational process. Summer School perfectly combined leisure with study. All lecturers were excellent specialists; preparation and organization of the program were at the highest level! According to the results of the educational program I had broadened my knowledge on various disciplines associated with international relations and international law. It will be very useful for me as I am “classical” orientalist", – Kamal Gasimov, Expert, Center for Strategic Studies under the President of Azerbaijan Republic, Baku, Azerbaijan

"The knowledge gained at the Summer School will help me deepen my scientific and working skills. Research and education component of the program of the Summer School was above my highest expectations. I want to mention the high level of experts and well-prepared administrative part of the school”, – Semen Kukol, Research Fellow, Center for Near Abroad Research, Russian Institute for Strategic Studies, Moscow, Russia

"Summer School of PIR Center provides a unique opportunity to meet Russian experts on all the key issues of international security. I was absolutely amazed with how many well-known and professional experts and politicians found time to meet and talk with us. I do not think that any other Summer School would give me an opportunity to drink tea with the Deputy Defence Minister and ask him questions about the Russian security in amicable atmosphere in the hall for the formal negotiations of the Ministry of Defence! I also cannot imagine other school to gather numerous active and former government officials, such as Evgeny Buzhinsky, Yuri Baluyevsky and Sergey Ryabkov, to spend hours discussing various questions with us. Right now I am writing a book on missile defence and I plan to use the knowledge acquired during my Summer School training to strengthen my arguments. In general, the acquired contacts, the level of discussion, the intensity of the communication and the organization of free time can be assessed as "excellent". Good job, PIR Center!" – Bilyana Lilly, External Expert, Oxford Analytica, Sofia, Bulgaria

"Summer School of PIR Center provides knowledge, not methods. The organizational work is done at the highest level. Scientific and educational component is at the highest level as well, the staff of lecturers was wonderful", – Alyona Makhukova, Alumni, National Research Nuclear University, Moscow, Russia

‘’I will definitely use the knowledge gained at the Summer School in my work. I would like to stress a very high level of the invited speakers and well-organized program of informational support. The key distinctions of the Summer School for me were high demands to the participant’s level and tests, which were created to evaluate the learning progress of the students. I think that the employees of Foreign Ministry of the Czech Republic will be eager to visit the school next year", – Jiří Preclík, Civil Servant, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic

"All the elements of the program of the Summer School were perfected up to the smallest detail. The variety of programs was really impressive. I would like to highlight the admirable level of invited guests and speakers. Work on the foresight was very interesting for me, particularly the processing of results and preparing the executive summary. Modeling of different scenarios also passed in a very exciting manner. In general, we have been busy every minute of the Summer School and we really enjoyed it", – Maria Roskoshnaya, Senior Specialist, Department of Nuclear Physics, Office of Export Control Federal Service for Technical and Export Control Moscow, Russia

"The organizers succeeded to reach the optimal composition of the Summer School; to get a good balance between theorists and practitioners. The program was prepared and organized on a highest level. I would like to thank you very much for this Summer School! You are genuine professionals and great people", – Andrey Shadursky, Chief Instructor, Department of European Studies, Faculty of International Relations, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia

"The main distinguishing features of the Summer School 2013 were: a high level of intensity of the educational program; informative lectures, really deep analytical studies of the empirical material, appropriate (with very few exceptions) selection of the lecturers and experts. By the way, it would be useful to extend the time for discussion after the presentations of lecturers. Such formats, as foresight and scenario modeling added a necessary variety to traditional education elements (lectures, seminars, round tables). They also opened a possibility to use knowledge acquired during the process of preparation to the School and to get a feedback from experts in the field. My only recommendation is to optimize the process of foresight with usage of electronic devices and applications, "– Natalia Shapiro, Chief Instructor, Department of Foreign Languages, Faculty of Global Politics, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

"The school program is well-combined; topics of the lectures as well as the seminars and round tables are relevant and up-to-date. In my opinion, the debates were the most useful part of the educational process, involving everyone and giving opportunity to present each opinion. I would like to express genuine gratitude to the organizers of the Summer School on behalf of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan. In future in would be great to organize the participation of employees from the Government Staff of Tajikistan and the Presidential Administration of Tajikistan, students and alumni of Tajik National University and Tajik Technical University", –  Jamshed Sharipov, Attaché, Office of the Commonwealth of Independent States, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Tajikistan, Dushanbe, Tajikistan

“This Summer School was notable for good participant’s preparation, very representative speakers list and the variety of covered topics. Evaluating  the program, I would like to say, that the energy policy should be covered. I would have also added some lecturers from CIS states”, – Olga Skorokhodova, Visiting PhD student, Fox's Center for International and Regional Studies, Yale University, New-Haven, the United States of America

"I am glad to note an utterly high quality of the event in terms of organization, invited participants, the speakers, the content of the School. I plan to use the knowledge which I got from School in my academic and practical work," – Julia Sveshnikova, PhD Student, Chair of World Politics, National Research University – Higher School of Economics; MA Student, International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization (ISTAC, Kuala-Lumpur, Malaysia), Moscow, Russia

"The main distinction of the PIR Center Summer School is that it is more of a platform for the discussion of topical issues in the field of security with a very well-organized educational component. The most productive and interesting part for me were the debates" – Meder Utebaev, Inspector, Foreign Policy Department, the Kyrgyz Republic President Administration, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan

"I'm sure that the organization of the PIR Center Summer School deserves the highest rating. Scientific and educational component are fully reasonable and well-balanced. The format of the Summer School is excellent and seeking to expand the horizons of knowledge and scientific interests of all the participants " – Daria Volodkina, Research Fellow, Institute of Strategic Stability, State Corporation “Rosatom” Moscow, Russia

"The school is well-organized, possesses a high quality informational, methodological and analytical background. The agenda answers all demands of the modern world. The discussion at the debates taught us that you can find counterarguments even for the engrained opinion. Foresight provided us an opportunity to practice the forecasting. I would like to highlight the level of the speakers, a variety of lectures and seminars, as well as professionalism of organizers", – Volodymir Yatsiv, Third Secretary, Secretariat of the Minister, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine

"It was so interesting for me that the time flew by quickly and I did not felt tired even for a moment. The number of activities was optimal, their diversity was impressive. There is nothing to change in the content of the program, as it is perfectly prepared and meets the highest standards and demands and exceeds all expectations. The highest level of lecturers, their effort and approach to the process, honesty, sincerity and willingness to enter an open dialogue with the audience was impressive. We were pleased with a large scale and range of views and attitudes of the lecturers, their openness, responsibility, respect for the audience and the seriousness of the classes. In general, everything was very professional, meaningful, interesting, entertaining, creative, capacious, rich and informative. It is obvious that the training was serious, and the organization of school was held at the top level " – Aiperi Zhamshitova, Expert, Department of International Cooperation, Government of the Kyrgyz Republic, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan

"A distinctive feature of the school is its high interactivity. We participated in very interesting excursions; enjoyed the company of like-minded listeners. As for the proposals - I would like to see more MFA representatives. In general, everything was done professionally with attention to every detail" – Viktor Zimin, Referent Secretary, Embassy of the Russian Federation in the Republic of Azerbaijan, Russia