An atomic bomb is dropped on Hiroshima, Japan. At 8:15 a.m. the B-29 bomber Enola Gay drops a 14-kiloton, 2,227-kg atomic bomb named Little Boy on Hiroshima, resulting in over 200,000 deaths and about 160,000 injured.
Germany successfully tests the Fau-2 (V-2) ballistic missile. It becomes the world’s first missile to break the speed of sound.



PIR Center continues a new section "PIR Test". This project in the form of a game carries equally educational, research and analytical meaning. Users are given the opportunity to take the test - to answer one of the designated questions. Our today's PIR Test is dedicated to the international document that is considered to be the very first to become the forerunner of the modern arms control system.


Elena Karnaukhova has been appointed of PIR Center Deputy Director – Education and Training Program Director. In her new position, Elena will be responsible for the strategic development of the organization and will continue to supervise the educational projects of PIR Center, as well as the Advisory Board and the Executive Board of PIR Center and the Trialogue Club International as its executive secretary.


PIR Center is taking part in the 10th NPT Review Conference on August 1-26, 2022, where for almost a month at the UN headquarters in New York, delegations from 191 signatory countries of the NPT will discuss the implementation of this important agreement in the field of international security.


This research paper attempts to place nuclear disarmament and arms control in the context of the sustainable development agenda. In particular, the paper examines the possibility of applying the experience and specific mechanisms of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol to create new incentives for nuclear arms control and disarmament. Considering the devastating environmental consequences of nuclear weapons use, the nuclear-weapon states should take responsibility for possessing nuclear weapons just as they took responsibility for carbon emissions.

Experts about the Journal

 1. 100th issue of Security Index Journal presentation, April 19, 2012, Moscow. Rossia24 TV Channel.


2. 100th issue of Security Index Journal - how we got here.


3. Ambassador of Sri Lanka to France and member of PIR Center's International Expert Group Dayan Jayatilleka expressed his congratulations with publishing the landmark 100th issue of Security Index



Since its inception in 1994 your publication has become one of Russia's most influential sources on matters of global security and nuclear nonproliferation. The papers published by the journal enjoy well-deserved recognition among expert and government circles in Russia and abroad. Russian Defense Ministry staff have always valued the Security Index as a source of objective analysis on the topical issues of nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction and arms control.


Anatoly Antonov, Deputy Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation, 20.03.12


I am delighted to have been involved in the evolution of this publication from its foundation back in 1994. I study each Security Index issue with unfailing interest, avidly consuming its thought-provoking and factually balanced materials. The 100th issue is a good opportunity for launching new projects. I am confident that the Security Index will continue to develop further and delight its readers with top-quality materials.


  Sergey Prikhodko, Security Index Editorial Board member, Aide to the President of the Russian Federation, 20.03.12


"Cooperation with the Security Index journal is a real opportunity for me to enjoy intellectual freedom and experience highest level of analysis that we miss so much in the sphere of foreign policy discourses here in Russia."

Sergei Ryabkov, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, at the reception on the occasion of the Security Index journal hundred issue, 19.04.12


The Security Index journal and its predecessor Yaderny Kontrol have been in high demand amongst decision makers in the nuclear field for many years, both in Russia and abroad. Recently, the journal has successfully expanded its spectrum to other security issues – drugs, cybercrime and energy security, to name just a few. The Security Index journal is always a welcome reminder of the wider picture, of how interconnected the world’s problems are. It has become a must-read for many people here in Vienna, the hub of a number of security-related international organizations in the wider UN system.


Tibor Tóth, Executive Secretary of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization, 20.03.12


“What unites us is that we have 100 issues of Security Index journal, and we wish you to have 200th and 300th issues, and have more and more new dates and anniversaries.”


Konstantin Kosachev, Head of the Federal Agency for the Commonwealth of Independent States, Compatriots Living Abroad and International Humanitarian Cooperation (Rossotrudnichestvo), 19.04.12


As a member of PIR Center Advisory Board, I am well acquainted with your organization’s performance and regularly read the materials that appear in your Journal. I feel certain that Security Index will for years to come remain popular among the Russian and foreign scholars, and will retain the status of the top Russian publication that analyzes topical problems of national and global security on the highest expert level.


  Nikolay Laverov, PIR Center Advisory Board member, Vice-president of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 20.03.12


 We celebrate the 100th issue of Security Index, the outstanding Russian Journal on International Security, and congratulate PIR Center and its Staff for this remarkable achievement. We, at the NPSGlobal Foundation, are proud of our long-standing friendship.

Irma Arguello, Founder and Chair,

The NPSGlobal Foundation, 20.03.12


 100 issues demonstrate that Security Index has very well established itself among those scholarly magazines that aim to reach out to decision-makers and decision-shapers and the broader public. The journal helps the understanding of a broad community that knows the views from Moscow and an open exchange with Moscow is of ever-increasing importance for us all.

Pal Dunay, Head of the International Security Program, Geneva Centre for Security Policy, 20.03.12  


I offer my sincere congratulations to PIR Center on the occasion of the 100th issue of the Security Index journal. During my tenure as High Representative for Disarmament Affairs at the United Nations I relied on the Security Index for up to date information on vital security questions. I wish a successful continuation of this very useful publication.

Sergio Duarte, United Nations High Representative for Disarmament Affairs, 20.03.12


"Nearly two decades ago, at the end of the Cold War, Vladimir Orlov and his team began an experiment – to publish a journal that was committed to more transparency in a field that had been tightly closed in Soviet times. Orlov's hope of creating more openness and deeper understanding of Russian security issues has been fulfilled in the first 100 issues of the journal, known as Yaderny Kontrol in the early days and today named Security Index.

David E. Hoffman, The Washington Post Moscow bureau chief (1995-2001), Pulitzer Prize-winning author, 20.03.12

1brilev.jpg"The PIR Center's new journal is increasingly justifying its intended purpose as a practical academic publication with information useful for those who make difficult political decisions on a daily basis" 

Sergei Brilev, journalist, prize winner of the TEFI-2006 TV award, at the meeting of the Security Index Editorial Board, Moscow, Russia, October 5, 2006.

2potter.jpg"My colleagues and I in the United States are perfectly confident that if we want to present our opinions to decision makers in Washington we must publish our articles in the PIR Center's journal” 

William Potter, director of the Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies, at the reception on the occasion of the 80th Issue of Yaderny Kontrol journal and Security Index journal presentation, Moscow, Russia, April 29, 2006.

3spass.jpg“This is really serious journal which is an important organizer who conveys all the intellectual, analytical and political activities focused especially on the issues of non-proliferation and nuclear security. ” 

Nikolai Spassky, former deputy head of the Federal Atomic Energy Agency (2006-2008), since 2008 deputy head of Russian State Nuclear Energy corporation Rosatom. At the plenary session of the conference "G8 Global Security Agenda: Challenges and Interests. Towards the St. Petersburg Summit", Moscow, Russia, April 21, 2006.

4zavarzkiy.jpgI have to note the contribution of the PIR Center, which for more than a decade has made influential and meaningful contributions to the analyses and practical discussions about the role of nuclear weapons and Russian nuclear centers in ensuring the defense capabilities and security of the Russian state. I am certain that the lively expert discussion of these issues that graced the pages of Yaderny Kontrol will be continued on the pages of its successor, Security Index

Viktor Zavarzin, chairman, Defense Committee, Russian Federation State Duma, in the congratulation letter at the occasion of the 1st Issue of Security Index journal publication, Moscow, Russia, February 1, 2007.

5_kirienko.jpg"The PIR Center's professionalism and energy make us confident that the publication will become an effective and reliable aide in solving the significant issues that stand before Russia's nuclear branch." 

Sergei Kiriyenko, since 2007 head of Russian State Nuclear Energy Corporation Rosatom, in the congratulation letter on the occasion of publication of the 1st Issue ofSecurity Index journal, Moscow, Russia, February 1, 2007.


6ivanov.jpg"The publication of the first issue of Security Index, which is intended as a clear and reliable source of objective information on Russian foreign and defense policy not compromised by politics and ideology, is no doubt a very necessary and timely event." 

Sergei Ivanov, former deputy chairman of the Russian Federation Government (2005-2011), Russian Federation Minister of Defense (2001-2007), incumbent Chief of Staff of Presidential Administration in the congratulatory letter at the occasion of the 1st Issue of Security Index journal, Moscow, Russia, February 1, 2007.


7baluevskiy.jpgI hope that the journal's new format will make it possible to expand the topics it covers, attract new, interesting authors, and more deeply investigate the processes taking place in the world today. 

Yury Baluevsky, former chief of the General Staff Russian Federation Armed Forces (2004-2008), army general, advisor to the chief of troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in the congratulation letter at the occasion of publication of the 1st Issue of Security Index journal, Moscow, Russia, February 1, 2007.


8_sobolev.jpg"I'm convinced that the Security Index journal will be as demanded among the decision-makers in the field of security as its predecessor Yaderny Kontrol.” 

Valentin Sobolev, former deputy secretary of the Security Council of the Russian Federation (2008-2012), at the reception on the occasion of publication of the 1st Issue of the Security Index journal, Moscow, Russia, February 1, 2007.


9hofer.jpg"I'm very much impressed by the quality of the authors and the quality of their writing. This is the most valuable contribution to modern security policy thinking." 

Erwin Hofer, former Ambassador of Switzerland to the Russian Federation (till 2012), at the reception on the occasion of publication of the 1st Issue of the Security Index journal, Moscow, Russia, February 1, 2007.


11_ponom-step.jpgI hope that the PIR Center's journal will not simply preserve and build upon the authority that Yaderny Kontrol earned within the expert community, but also acquire new authors and readers for whom the journal Security Index will become the No. 1 academic publication! 

Nikolai Ponomarev-Stepnoi, academician, former vice president of the Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute (1992-2010), in the congratulation letter on the occasion of publication of the 1st Issue of Security Index journal, Moscow, Russia, February 1, 2007.


12_zrodnikov.jpgI'm convinced that the journal in its new format will become the resourse that would feature broad discussion on issues of energy supply and sustainable development. 

Anatoly Zrodnikov, director, State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation – Institute For Physics and Power Engineering Named After A.I.Leypunsky (1996-2010), at the reception on the occasion of publication of the 1st Issue of Security Index journal, Moscow, Russia, February 1, 2007.


13_tork.jpgI wish Security Index a pleasant voyage through the stormy waters of the seven seas, and to the Center associates - new creative successes and accomplishments! 

Anatoly Torkunov, Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Rector of Moscow State Institute of International Relations (University) of the MFA of Russia, from 2011 member of the Collegium of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, in the congratulation letter on the occasion of publication of the 1st Issue of Security Index journal, Moscow, Russia, February 1, 2007.


14loshin.jpgThe security dialogue, launched on the pages of Security Index, helps us all to better listen to each other, hear each other, and work together on cooperatively building a new security architecture of a new multipolar world. 

Valery Loshchinin, Ambassador, head of the Permanent Mission of Russian Federation to the United Nations Office and other International Organizations in Geneva, at the reception on the occasion of the presentation of Security Index journal International Edition, Switzerland, 28 February 2007.


15_chemezov.jpg“I wish Security Index continuing success in the international dialogue aimed at a comprehensive analysis of security issues and the search for the best possible ways to harmonize intergovernmental and international relations.” 

Sergei Chemezov, Rosoboronexport State Corporation Director General (2000-2004).


1lav.jpg“Congratulations on the publication of the first issue of Security Index. I view this as persuasive confirmation of the need for the research that your Center has been carrying out over the course of over a decade on a broad range of international security topics, including disarmament and nonproliferation.” 

Sergei Lavrov, Russian Minister of foreign affairs, in the congratulation letter on the occasion of the publication of the 1st Issue of Security Indexjournal.