Chronology

Great Britain conducts its last nuclear test.
26.11.1991
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25.11.2020

“In this transitional period, further strengthening of the dialogue with external partners, in particular BRICS-Plus, is of paramount importance. The absence of the states of the Middle East and Southeast Asia in the “club” at present limits the potential for the formation of a BRICS partner network. Whereas the “club” has a generally strong membership, so far, none of the states of the Islamic world participates in BRICS. This creates a certain imbalance, even though the Muslim population makes up a significant share in two of the five BRICS countries (India and Russia)”, ‒ PIR Center's report on the prospects of BRICS enlargement from the point of view of international security and Russia's interests.

24.11.2020

On the November 16 the U.S. conducted a successful test of the SM-3 Block IIA interceptor missile. The target of interceptor missile imitated an ICBM. The editorial board decided to talk to an expert about the way such test may influence strategic stability.  During the interview Oleg Krivolapov, research fellow of the Institute of USA and Canada of the Russian Academy of Sciences, told Nikita Degtyarev, Coordinatorof the PIR CenterInformation & Publications Program, about the influence of the SM-3 Block IIA test on strategic stability, threat to Russian strategic systems and the future of the U.S. antimissile system.

23.11.2020

“Today, feeling the amazing energy of the participants of the XX Anniversary School, of my colleagues and, of course, of those, who we call the PIR Center Community, I want to point out that we are moving in the right direction. Thanks to our common efforts, the PIR Center has crossed a quarter-century threshold and continues to be active, for what I want to express my special thanks to members of our “organized non-governmental community”, ‒ Vladimir Orlov, Founder and Director of the PIR Center.   

Crimean crisis and the nuclear weapons

On December 5, 1994 Ukraine, the USA, Russia and the United Kingdom signed a Memorandum on Security Assurances in connection with the accession of Ukraine to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (Budapest Memorandum). According to the memorandum Ukraine acquired a nuclear-free status in exchange for a series of guarantees for the sovereignty and security.

The status and relevance of the Budapest Memorandum acquired special significance in late February - early March 2014, in connection with the situation in Crimea, which has not recognized the new government in Kiev and has announced plans to join Russia.

 

Materials:

The US-Russia-Ukraine Trilateral Statement (Moscow, January 14, 1994)

"Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin informed President Kravchuk that the United States and Russia are prepared to provide security assurances to Ukraine.  In particular, once the START I Treaty enters into force and Ukraine becomes a non-nuclear-weapon  state party to the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty  (NPT)"

Full text of the Statement

 

Memorandum on Security Assurances in connection with Ukraine’s accession to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (Budapest, 5 December 1994)

"The United States of America, the Russian Federation, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, reaffirm their obligation to refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of Ukraine, and that none of their weapons will ever be used against Ukraine except in self-defense or otherwise in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations."

Full text of the Memorandum


Excerpts from Russian President Vladimir Putin’s press-conference with Russian journalists on the situation in Ukraine (Moscow, March 4, 2014)

"And if it is a revolution, what does it mean? Then I cannot but agree with some of our experts, who believe that a new state was created in this territory. Just as it was after the collapse of the Russian Empire, after 1917, we saw a new state emerge. And with that state and in respect to the state, we have not signed any binding documents."

Full text


Leading experts discuss the Ukrainian Issue at the Trialogue meeting

"Events of the night from February 21 to 22 changed not only the Russian foreign policy but, to my mind, relations between Russia and the West and deeply influenced international relations. Russia stopped its geopolitical retreat and shifted from passivity, not only in Ukrainian issue, but in its foreign policy generally, to active approach"

Full text of the news article

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