Chronology

The signing in Prague of the Protocol on Termination of the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance signed in Warsaw on May 14, 1955 and its Extension Protocol signed in Warsaw on April 26, 1985.
01.07.1991
The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is opened for signing.
01.07.1968
The PRC sets up the Second Corps of Artillery, the Chinese version of the Soviet Missile Forces.
01.07.1966
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PIR PRESS NEWS

30.06.2022

Iran and Argentina have applied to join the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) mechanism days after a summit of the five-nation bloc during which the leaders agreed to continue to discuss the possibility of admitting new countries to the grouping on the basis of "full consultation and consensus."

23.06.2022

On June 25, at 20:00 in Zvenigorod (Moscow region), as part of the Maslin Fest, the PIR Community is holding the First Charity Auction in support of the PIR Center Education & Training Program. Among the lots on display: unique materials from the 1990s, bibliographic and research rarities from our storerooms, books and magazines with autographs of the authors. To participate in the auction, it is enough to register for the Maslin Fest.

23.06.2022

On June 22, 2022, the XXI International School on Global Security for young professionals from Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) was visited by Sergei Ryabkov, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia. He noticed the fundamental theses of the Russian foreign policy doctrine and assessed the current situation of the Russian Federation on the world stage and prospects for the development of relations with partners.

21.06.2022

In an Vladimir Orlov's interview, director of PIR Center, with Jorge Ferrer, a journalist of the Spanish newspaper El Mundo, the issues of the risks of using nuclear weapons against the background of the Ukrainian conflict are touched upon. We also talked about how the Chekhov's gun differs from nuclear weapons, whether Russia will use tactical nuclear weapons in Ukraine, whether European children can sleep peacefully now, American or Russian nuclear weapons pose a great danger to global security, whether there is reason for optimism today and which race will replace the current unwise human race.

International uranium enrichment center in Angarsk

PIR Center's project on International uranium enrichment center is completed. This page is not being updated any more.


Angarsk_pic1.jpgAt the meeting of the Interstate Council of the Eurasian Economic Community held  in St. Petersburg on January 25, 2006, Russian President Vladimir Putin put forward an initiative to establish a network of international nuclear fuel cycle centers. Such centers should operate under the IAEA safeguards on the basis of nondiscriminatory access for the participating countries.

The creation of an international uranium enrichment center (IUEC) will be Russia's first step in the field of nuclear fuel cycle services. Apart from economic benefits brought by the inflow of foreign investment and the development of high-technology production, the creation of the IUEC could contribute significantly to the strengthening of the nonproliferation regime as it would encourage the participating countries to abandon their national uranium enrichment programs.

The Angarsk Electrochemical Combine (AEC), situated 130 km from the lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia, has been chosen as a site for the establishment of the center.

Angarsk_pic2.jpg

The AEC is equipped with the sixth generation gas centrifuges that are currently being modernized. The International Center will be created on the basis of the existing infrastructure on the territory of the AEC with an option of a later expansion of generating facilities. It is important to note that this center shall provide services exclusively for uranium enrichment and conversion. Spent fuel will not be transported back to the combine as it has been announced by the AEC general director Victor Shopen at the press-conference on July 21, 2006.

The original plan of the IUEC suggested participation of countries that are just starting to develop their nuclear energy capacity and, thus, do not possess uranium enrichment technologies. However, later the idea grew into a more ambitious plan which does not exclude participation of countries that have dozens of nuclear reactors, but a limited capacity to produce nuclear fuel.

At the moment, it is possible to identify KazakhstanIranJapan and the Republic of Korea as the four most plausible participants. Agreements with Ukraine may also be covered by the IUEC. Belarus has also expressed its interest in the project in spite of its limited needs for nuclear fuel. It is possible that at some point India may also consider participation in the project. In a more long-term perspective – after the expiration of the LEU-HEU contract in 2013 – the United Statesmay also be interested in placing its orders with the Russian enterprises provided that by that time American enrichment facilities in Ohio and New Mexico do not operate at the projected level.

At a later stage of the IUEC operation the center's work may be of interest to countries that are just starting to develop their nuclear energy capacities. These include VietnamEgyptIndonesiaTurkey as well as MoroccoNigeriaSaudi Arabia,Thailand, and Chile – countries that  also consider the possibility of building nuclear power stations. In addition, participation in IUEC may draw interest of countries that possess developed uranium mining industries, including Canada,Australia and Uzbekistan.


Timeline (PDF-file)

 
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