The Treaty between the U.S. and the USSR on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests and the Treaty between the USSR and the U.S. on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes come into force.
The South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty (the Treaty of Rarotonga) enters into force.
Additional Protocols I and II to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (Tlatelolco Treaty) come into force for Great Britain.

International Security Index iSi




“Internship at the PIR Center was very beneficial in many ways. On professional level, I was challenged every day and learned much about Russian policies, interests and perspectives on various security questions. This opportunity gave me a real taste of what working in an efficient think tank is. On a personal level, working for the PIR has pushed me outside my comfort zone into a completely unknown environment. But despite my limited skills in Russian, I had the feeling of being completely accepted and integrated in the team. All in all, my only regret will be the short term of my internship!”


“In the current highly politicized climate, the initiative for the International Convention on the Suppression of Acts of Chemical and Biological Terrorism may have a higher chance of succeeding if it transitions away from the usage of terrorist for non-state actor. Not only will it streamline the international legal framework by limiting the terminology to state and non-state actor, it will circumvent the necessity to provide a definition for terrorism”, –  Alicia Rorabaugh, PIR Center’s intern and student of the Dual Degree Master Program in Nonproliferation Studies


“There is a proposal to start research and development [on a missile prohibited under the INF Treaty]. It is not prohibited according to the Treaty, but it seems to be the first step of violation of the soul of the Treaty. […] For us, this is an indication that activities to create a new missile violating the Treaty are going on. The United States is engaged in preparatory work to withdraw from the Treaty. We consider this to be a mistake. We have offered the United States to sit together and discuss all issues of mutual concern, find solutions to these issues, and avoid making efforts provoking the other side to give an adequate answer,” — Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Russian Federation to the United States of America.

International Security Index iSi


What is iSi? - The International Security Index (iSi) is a comprehensive index of the level of international security developed by the PIR Center through a project that has been ongoing for over a year. The project is currently undergoing an international assessment. The iSi index is meant to demonstrate the extent to which the international security situation differs from the “ideal”  (assumed as 4210 points according to our methodology) at each point in time. It also indicates how various specific military and nonmilitary factors are effecting international security.

How is iSi calculated? - The most important characteristics of iSi are its comprehensiveness, robustness, and clarity. A great number of the factors that directly effect international security are reflected in iSi in a concentrated form. They include: the threat of global nuclear war, the number and intensity of local conflicts, the type of political relations between various countries and international organizations, the intensity and scale of terrorist activity, the stability of the global economy, and the threat posed by man-made catastrophes and epidemics. The aim of iSi is to provide quantitative indicators that reflect the dynamics of trends in international security. The iSi index is meant to demonstrate the extent to which the international security situation differs from the “ideal” at each point in time. It also indicates how various specific military and nonmilitary factors are affecting international security.  More details on iSi methodology is availabla here.

What is International expert group (INTEG) for? - The PIR Center's monthly calculation of iSi is accompanied by interviews with our International Expert Group, which includes representatives from Russia, Argentina, Brazil, China, France, Hungary, India, Saudi Arabia, Sweden the United States and Uzbekistan. The evaluations of these experts in no way influence the calculation of the Index. Nevertheless, they make it possible for us to see how our calculations are viewed in a given month and, in particular, the dynamics of iSi over the course of several months at a time, in various regions of the world.

Read full project description







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