Сandidate of Historical Sciences. The chairman of the Scientific Council and the head of the program “Foreign Policy and Security” of the Carnegie Moscow Center. In 1993-1997, worked as a senior researcher at the Institute of Europe of the Russian Academy of Sciences and at the NATO Military College in Rome. In 1972-1993, served in the Armed Forces of the USSR and the Russian Federation; in particular, was a liaison officer in the Department of Foreign Relations of the Group of Soviet Troops in Germany (Potsdam) and an employee of the USSR delegation to the Soviet-American negotiations on nuclear and space weapons in Geneva. From 1986 to 1993, taught at the Military Institute. Member of the Foreign and Defence Policy Council. Author, co—author and editor of many books in Russian and English, including: “Solo Swimming”, “Getting Russia Right”, “Integration and Identity: Russia as the “New West”, “The Russian Military: Power and Policy” (with Stephen Miller), “Time The South” (co-authored with Alexey Malashenko). Member of the Expert Council of the PIR Center since 2002.