Doctor of Economics. Member of the Board of Directors of the Gazprom company. Doctor of Economics, Professor. Recognized by the Russian Federation as an economist of distinction. Participated in the drafting and realization of economic reforms in Russia, holding a variety of government posts. Served as an advisor to the Russian prime minister in 1992-1993, and from 1997-2002 headed the Russian government’s Working Center for Economic Reform. Currently a member of the Presidential Council on Science, Technology, and Education. Author of over 20 monographs, books, and learning aids and more than 400 brochures, academic articles, and popular essays. Academic interests include political economy, history of Russian economic thought and economic reforms, economic policy history and theory, and comparative analysis of economic policy.